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SEG RELAY MR13-IRSR And SEG RELAY MR13-IE

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20 / 12 / 2019
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Pt. Anela Electrindo Nusantara
 
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Detail SEG RELAY MR13-IRSR And SEG RELAY MR13-IE

MRI3 - Digital multifunctional relay for overcurrent protection 2 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Contents 1 Introduction and application 2 Features and characteristics 3 Design 3.1 Connections 3.1.1 Analog input circuits 3.1.2 Output relays 3.1.3 Blocking input 3.1.4 External reset input 3.2 Relay output contacts 3.2.1 Fault recorder 3.2.2 Parameter settings ( see chapter 5) 3.3 LEDs 4 Working principle 4.1 Analog circuits 4.2 Digital circuits 4.3 Directional feature 4.3.1 Reversal in direction during the activation phase 4.4 Earth fault protection 4.4.1 Generator stator earth fault protection 4.4.2 System earth fault protection 4.5 Earth-fault directional feature ( ER/ XR-relay type) 4.6 Determining earth short-circuit fault direction 4.6.1 Directly earthed system 4.6.2 Resistance earthed system 4.6.3 Connection possibilities of the voltage transformers for SR relay types 4.7 Demand imposed on the main current transformers 5 Operation and settings 5.1 Display 5.2 Setting procedure 5.3 System parameter 5.3.1 Display of measuring values as primary quantities ( Iprim phase) 5.3.2 Display of earth current as primary quantity ( Iprim earth) 5.3.3 Display of residual voltage UE as primary quantity ( Uprim/ Usec) 5.3.4 Voltage transformer connection for residual voltage measuring ( 3pha/ e-n/ 1: 1) 5.3.5 Nominal frequency 5.3.6 Display of the activation storage ( FLSH/ NOFL) 5.3.7 Parameter switch/ external triggering of the fault recorder 5.4 Parameter protection 5.4.1 Pickup current for phase overcurrent element ( I> ) 5.4.2 Time current characteristics for phase overcurrent element ( CHAR I> ) 5.4.3 Trip delay or time factor for phase overcurrent element ( tI> ) 5.4.4 Reset setting for all tripping characteristics in the phase current path 5.4.5 Current setting for high set element ( I> > ) 5.4.6 Trip delay for high set element ( tI> > ) 5.4.7 Relay characteristic angle RCA 5.4.8 Pickup value for residual voltage UE ( ER/ XR-relay type) 5.4.9 Pickup current for earth fault element ( IE> ) 5.4.10 WARN/ TRIP changeover ( E/ X and ER/ XR-relay type) 5.4.11 Time current characteristics for earth fault element ( CHAR IE) ( not for ER/ XR-relay type) 5.4.12 Trip delay or time multiplier for earth fault element ( tIE> > ) 5.4.13 Reset mode for inverse time tripping in earth current path 5.4.14 Current setting for high set element of earth fault supervision ( IE> > ) 5.4.15 Trip delay for high set element of earth fault supervision ( tIE> > ) 5.4.16 COS/ SIN Measurement ( ER/ XR-relay type) 5.4.17 SOLI/ RESI changeover ( SR-relay type) 5.4.18 Block/ Trip time 5.4.19 Circuit breaker failure protection tCBFP 5.4.20 Adjustment of the slave address 5.4.21 Setting of Baud-rate ( applies for Modbus Protocol only) 5.4.22 Setting of parity ( applies for Modbus Protocol only) 5.5 Fault recorder 5.5.1 Adjustment of the fault recorder 5.5.2 Number of the fault recordings 5.5.3 Adjustment of trigger occurrences 5.5.4 Pre-trigger time ( Tpre) 5.6 Adjustment of the clock 5.7 Additional functions 5.7.1 Blocking the protection functions and assignment of the output relays 5.8 Setting value calculation 5.8.1 Definite time overcurrent element 5.8.2 Inverse time overcurrent element 5.9 Indication of measuring and fault values 5.9.1 Indication of measuring values 5.9.2 Units of the measuring values displayed 5.9.3 Indication of fault data 5.9.4 Fault memory 5.10 Reset 5.10.1 Erasure of fault storage TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 3 6 Relay testing and commissioning 6.1 Power-On 6.2 Testing the output relays and LEDs 6.3 Checking the set values 6.4 Secondary injection test 6.4.1 Test equipment 6.4.2 Example of test circuit for MRI3 relays without directional feature 6.4.3 Checking the input circuits and measured values 6.4.4 Checking the operating and resetting values of the relay 6.4.5 Checking the relay operating time 6.4.6 Checking the high set element of the relay 6.4.7 Example of a test circuit for MRI3 relay with directional feature 6.4.8 Test circuit earth fault directional feature 6.4.9 Checking the external blocking and reset functions 6.4.10 Testing the external blocking with Block/ Trip function 6.4.11 Test of the CB failure protection 6.5 Primary injection test 6.6 Maintenance 7 Technical data 7.1 Measuring input circuits 7.2 Common data 7.3 Setting ranges and steps 7.3.1 Time overcurrent protection ( I-Type) 7.3.2 Earth fault protection ( SR-Type) 7.3.3 Earth fault protection ( E/ X-Type) 7.3.4 Earth fault protection ( ER/ XR-Type) 7.3.5 Block/ Trip time 7.3.6 Switch failure protection 7.3.7 Interface parameter 7.3.8 Parameter for the fault recorder 7.3.9 Inverse time overcurrent protection relay 7.3.10 Direction unit for phase overcurrent relay 7.3.11 Determination of earth fault direction ( MRl3-ER/ XR) 7.3.12 Determination of earth fault direction ( MRl3-SR) 7.4 Inverse time characteristics 7.5 Output contacts 8 Order form 4 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 1 Introduction and application The MRl3 digital multifunctional relay is a universal time overcurrent and earth fault protection device intended for use in medium-voltage systems, either with an isolated/ compensated neutral point or for networks with a solidly earthed/ resistance-earthed neutral point. The protective functions of MRI3 which are implemented in only one device are summarized as follows: Independent ( Definite) time overcurrent relay, inverse time overcurrent relay with selectable characteristics, integrated determination of fault direction for application to doubly infeeded lines or meshed systems, two-element ( low and high set) earth fault protection with definite or inverse time characteristics, integrated determination of earth fault direction for application to power system networks with isolated or arc suppressing coil ( Peterson coil) neutral earthing. ( ER/ XR-relay type) , integrated determination of earth short-circuit fault direction in systems with solidly-earthed neutral point or in resistance-earthed systems ( SR-relay type) . Furthermore, the relay MRI3 can be employed as a back-up protection for distance and differential protective relays. A similar, but simplified version of overcurrent relay IRI1 with reduced functions without display and serial interface is also available. Important: For additional common data of all MR-relays please refer to manual " MR - Digital Multifunctional relays" . On page 51 of this manual you can find the valid software versions. 2 Features and characteristics Digital filtering of the measured values by using discrete Fourier analysis to suppress the high frequence harmonics and DC components induced by faults or system operations, two parameter sets, selectable protective functions between: definite time overcurrent relay and inverse time overcurrent relay, selectable inverse time characteristics according to IEC 255-4: Normal Inverse ( Type A) Very Inverse ( Type B) Extremely Inverse ( Type C) Special characteristics, reset setting for inverse time characteristics selectable, high set overcurrent unit with instantaneous or definite time function, two-element ( low and high set) overcurrent relay both for phase and earth faults, directional feature for application to the doubly infeeded lines or meshed systems, earth fault directional feature selectable for either isolated or compensated networks, sensitive earth fault current measuring with or without directional feature ( X and XR-relay type) , determination of earth short-circuit fault direction for systems with solidly-earthed or resistance-earthed neutral point, numerical display of setting values, actual measured values and their active, reactive components, memorized fault data, etc., display of measuring values as primary quantities, withdrawable modules with automatic short circuiters of C.T. inputs when modules are withdrawn, blocking e.g. of high set element ( e.g. for selective fault detection through minor overcurrent protection units after unsuccessful AR) , relay characteristic angle for phase current directional feature selectable, circuit breaker failure protection, storage of trip values and switching-off time ( tCBFP) of 5 fault occurences ( fail-safe of voltage) , recording of up to eight fault occurences with time stamp, free assignment of output relays serial data exchange via RS485 interface possible; alternatively with SEG RS485 Pro-Open Data Protocol or Modbus Protocol, suppression of indication after an activation ( LED flash) , display of date and time TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 5 3 Design 3.1 Connections Phase and earth current measuring: Figure 3.1: Measuring of the phase currents for over-current- and short-circuit protection ( I> , I> > ) Figure 3.2: Earth-fault measuring by means of ring-core C.T. ( IE) When phase-- and earth-fault current measuring are combined, the connection has to be realized as per Figure 3.1and Figure 3.2 or Figure 3.3. Figure 3.3: Phase current measuring and earth-current detection by means of Holmgreen-circuit. This connection can be used with three existing phase current transformers when combined phase and earthcurrent measuring is required. Disadvantage of holmgreen-circuit: At saturation of one or more C.Ts the relay detects seeming an earth current. * This arrow shows the current flow in forward direction, for this LED lights up green 6 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Voltage measuring for the directional detection: Figure 3.4: Measuring of the phase voltages for the directional detection at overcurrent, short-circuit or earth-fault protection ( I> , I> > , IE> and IE> > ) . For details on the connection of ER/ XR-unit type c.t.s, see para 4.5. I> I> I> A3 L1 U1 U2 A5 L2 A7 L3 A2 N U3 L1 L2 L3 a b c Figure 3.5: Voltage transformer in V-connection for the directional detection at overcurrent and short-circuit protection. The V-connection can not be applied at earth fault directional feature. 3.1.1 Analog input circuits The protection unit receives the analog input signals of the phase currents IL1 ( B3-B4) , IL2 ( B5-B6) , IL3 B7-B8) and the current IE ( B1-B2) , phase voltages U1 ( A3) , U2 ( A5) , U3 ( A7) with A2 as star point, each via separate input transformers. The constantly detected current measuring values are galvanically decoupled, filtered and finally fed to the analog/ digital converter. For the unit type with earthfault directional features ( ER/ XR-relay type) the residual voltage UE in the secondary circuit of the voltage transformers is internally formed. In case no directional feature for the phase current path is necessary the residual voltage from the open delta winding can directly be connected to A3 and A2. See Chapter 4.5 for voltage transformer connections on isolated/ compensated systems. 3.1.2 Output relays The MRI3 is equipped with 5 output relays. Apart from the relay for self-supervision, all protective functions can be optionally assigned: Relay 1: C1, D1, E1 and C2, D2, E2 Relay 2: C3, D3, E3 and C4, D4, E4 Relay 3: C5, D5, E5 Relay 4: C6, D6, E6 Relay 5: Self-supervision C7, D7, E7 All trip and alarm relays are working current relays, the relay for self supervision is an idle current relay. 3.1.3 Blocking input The blocking functions adjusted before will be blocked if an auxiliary voltage is connected to ( terminals) D8/ E8. ( See chapter 5.7.1) 3.1.4 External reset input Please refer to chapter 5.10. TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 7 3.2 Relay output contacts Figure 3.6 3.2.1 Fault recorder The MRI3 is equipped with a disturbance value recorder which records the measured analogue values as momentary values. The momentary values iL1, iL2, iL3, iE, are scanned within a grid 1.25 ms ( with 50 Hz) or 1.041 ms ( with 60 Hz) and filed in a circulating storage. The max. storage capacity amounts to 16 s ( with 50 Hz) or 13.33 s ( with 60 Hz) . Storage division Independent of the recording time, the entire storage capacity can be divided into several cases of disturbance with a shorter recording time each. In addition, the deletion behaviour of the fault recorder can be influenced. No writing over If 2, 4 or 8 recordings are chosen, the complete memory is divided into the relevant number of partial segments. If this max. number of fault event has been exceeded, the fault recorder block any further recordings in order to prevent that the stored data are written over. After the data have been read and deleted, the recorder to ready again for further action. Writing over If 1, 3 or 7 recordings are chosen, the relevant number of partial segments is reserved in the complete memory. If the memory is full, a new recording will always write over the oldest one. The memory part of the fault recorder is designed as circulating storage. In this example 7 fault records can be stored ( written over) . Memory space 6 to 4 is occupied. Memory space 5 is currently being written in Figure 3.7: Division of the memory into 8 segments, for example Since memory spaces 6, 7 and 8 are occupied, this example shows that the memory has been assigned more than eight recordings. This means that No. 6 is the oldest fault recording and No. 4 the most recent one. 8 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB trigger occurence recording duration Tpre [ s] Figure 3.8: Recording scheme of the fault recorder with pre-trigger time Each memory segment has a specified storage time which permits setting of a time prior to the trigger event. Via the interface RS485 the data can be read and processed by means of a PC with HTL/ PL-Soft4. The data is graphically edited and displayed. Binary tracks are recorded as well, e.g. activation and trip. TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 9 3.2.2 Parameter settings ( see chapter 5) System parameter Relay type MRI3- I IE IX IRE IRX IR IER IXR IRER IRXR ER XR E X ISR IRSR SR Display of measuring values as primary quantities ( Iprim phase) X X X X X X X X Display of earth current as primary quantities ( Iprim earth) X X X X X X X X X Display of residual voltage UE as primary quantity ( Uprim/ Usec) X X X 3pha/ e-n/ 1: 1 X X X 50/ 60 Hz X X X X X X X X X X X LED-Flash X X X X X X X X X X X RS 485/ Slaveaddress X X X X X X X X X X X Baud-Rate 1) X X X X X X X X X X X Parity-Check 1) X X X X X X X X X X X Adjustment of the clock: Y = year; M = month; D = day; h = hour; m = minute; s = sec. X X X X X X X X X X X Table 3.1: System parameters of the different relay types Protection parameter Relay type MRI3- I IE IX IRE IRX IR IER IXR IRER IRXR ER XR E X ISR IRSR SR 2 parameter sets X X X X X X X X X X X I> X X X X X X X X CHAR I> X X X X X X X X tI> X X X X X X X X 0 s/ 60 s 2) X X X X X X X X I> > X X X X X X X X tI> > X X X X X X X X RCA X X X X UE X X X IE> X X X X X X X X X warn/ trip X X X X X X CHAR IE X X X X X X tIE X X X X X X X X X 0s / 60 s 3) X X X X X X IE> > X X X X X X X X X tIE> > X X X X X X X X X sin/ cos X X X soli/ resi X X X tCBFP X X X X X X X X X X X Block/ Trip X X X X X X X X X X X Table 3.2: Protection parameters of the different relay types. 1) Only devices with Modbus-Protocol 2) Reset setting for inverse time characteristics in phase current path 3) Reset setting for inverse time characteristics in earth current path 10 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Parameter for the fault recorder Relay type MRI3- I IE IX IRE IRX IR IER IXR IRER IRXR ER XR E X ISR IRSR SR Number of fault events X X X X X X X X X X X Trigger events X X X X X X X X X X X Pre-trigger time ( Tpre) X X X X X X X X X X X Table 3.3: Parameters for the fault recorder of the different relay types Additional parameters Relay-type MRI3- I IE IX IRE IRX IR IER IXR IRER IRXR ER XR E X ISR IRSR SR Blocking mode 1) X X X X X X X X X X X Relay parameterizing X X X X X X X X X X X Fault recorder X X X X X X X X Table 3.4: Additional parameters of the different relay types 1) For 2 parameter sets ( separately for each parameter set) TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 11 Figure 3.9: Front plate MRI3-I Figure 3.10: Front plate MRI3-E/ X Figure 3.11: Front plate MRI3-IR Figure 3.12: Front plate MRI3-ER/ XR 12 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Figure 3.13: Front plate MRI3-SR Figure 3.14: Front plate MRI3-IRER/ IRXR and MRI3-IER/ IXR 3.3 LEDs The LEDs left from the display are partially bi-coloured, the green indicating measuring, and the red fault indication. MRI3 with directional feature have a LED ( green- and red arrow) for the directional display. At pickup/ trip and parameter setting the green LED lights up to indicate the forward direction, the red LED indicates the backward direction. The LED marked with letters RS lights up during setting of the slave address of the device for serial data communication. The LEDs arranged at the characteristic points on the setting curves support the comfortable setting menu selection. In accordance with the display 5 LEDs for phase fault overcurrent relay and 5 LEDs for earth-fault relay indicate the corresponding menu point selected. The LED labelled with the letters LR is alight while the fault recorder is being adjusted. Figure 3.15: Front plate MRI3-IRSR; MRI3-IRE/ IRX and MRI3-ISR TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 13 4 Working principle 4.1 Analog circuits The incoming currents from the main current transformers on the protected object are converted to voltage signals in proportion to the currents via the input transformers and burden. The noise signals caused by inductive and capacitive coupling are supressed by an analog R-C filter circuit. The analog voltage signals are fed to the A/ Dconverter of the microprocessor and transformed to digital signals through Sample- and Hold-circuits. The analog signals are sampled at 50 Hz ( 60 Hz) with a sampling frequency of 800 Hz ( 960 Hz) , namely, a sampling rate of 1.25 ms ( 1.04 ms) for every measuring quantity. ( 16 scans per periode) . Figure 4.1: Block diagram 4.2 Digital circuits The essential part of the MRI3 relay is a powerful microcontroller. All of the operations, from the analog digital conversion to the relay trip decision, are carried out by the microcontroller digitally. The relay program is located in an EPROM ( Electrically-Programmable- Read-Only-Memory) . With this program the CPU of the microcontroller calculates the three phase currents and ground current in order to detect a possible fault situation in the protected object. For the calculation of the current value an efficient digital filter based on the Fourier Transformation ( DFFT - Discrete Fast Fourier Transformation) is applied to suppress high frequency harmonics and DC components caused by fault-induced transients or other system disturbances. The calculated actual current values are compared with the relay settings. If a phase current exceeds the pickup value, an alarm is given and after the set trip delay has elapsed, the corresponding trip relay is activated. The relay setting values for all parameters are stored in a parameter memory ( EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory) , so that the actual relay settings cannot be lost, even if the power supply is interrupted. The microprocessor is supervised by a built-in " watchdog" timer. In case of a failure the watchdog timer resets the microprocessor and gives an alarm signal, via the output relay " self supervision" . 4.3 Directional feature A built-in directional element in MRI3 is available for application to doubly infeeded lines or to ring networks. The measuring principle for determining the direction is based on phase angle measurement and therefore also on coincidence time measurement between current and voltage. Since the necessary phase voltage for determining the direction is frequently not available in the event of a fault, whichever line-to-line voltage follows the faulty phase by 90 is used as the reference voltage for the phase current. The characteristic angle at which the greatest measuring sensitivity is achieved can be set to precede the reference voltage in the range from 15 to 83 . Figure 4.2: Relay characteristic angle The TRIP region of the directional element is determined by rotating the phasor on the maximum sensitivity angle for 90 , so that a reliable direction decision can be achieved in all faulty cases. 14 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 4.3.1 Reversal in direction during the activation phase Reversal of the current direction during the activation phase can lead to hyperfunctions. This mainly applies to installations where parallel connected lines are monitored by current relays with directional feature. For this reason the directional determination for the phase current is shown in a time window; this applies to all SR versions. In case of activation due to a fault, a timer is started and measures the time in the determined direction for max. 1 s. This timer runs backwards at half speed if, during the activation phase, a fault causes reversal of the direction. Only when the timer is at zero again, the MRI3 recognizes the reversal in direction. The switch-over time is max. 2 s. The activation delays tl> and tl> > are not affected by the delayed recognition of direction. 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.5 [ s] Trip delay at direction reversal max. time Recognition of direction reversal Recognition of backward direction is alight Recognition of forward direction is alight Timer runs at half speed actual direction reversal t= 1/ 2 Figure 4.3: Recording scheme of the fault recorder with lead time MRI3 MRI3 MRI3 MRI3 G IK = 0, 3 kA IK = 3, 61 kA IK = 0, 9 kA IK = 3, 31 kA IK = 1, 2 kA l = 3 km l = 0, 5 km l = 3 km No. 2 No. 4 No. 1 No. 3 Figure 4.4 Example: Figures 4.4 and 4.5 illustrate a possible fault situation with a reversal in direction in the fault-free line. The current transformers used have a primary current of 250 A. The switch point for the I> stage is 0.25 kA and for the I> > stage 1 kA. All devices have the same setting and will, if set to Forward , recognize the direction in relation to the forward direction of the line. The critical point here is the MRI3 No. 1. Using delay action in directional recognition, it is possible to prevent shut-down of the fault-free line. The following relay setting applies: I> 1.00 x In CHAR I> DEFT ( inverse) trip delay tI> ( V) 10s Trip delay in forward direction tI> ( R) EXIT ( no trip) Delay in backward direction I> > 4.00 x In tI> > ( V) 0.1 s tI> > ( R) EXIT MRI3 MRI3 MRI3 MRI3 G IK = 1, 2 kA IK = 2, 0 kA IK = 1, 2 kA IK = 0, 8 kA l = 0, 5 km l = 3 km l = 3 km No. 1 No. 3 No. 2 No. 4 Figure 4.5 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 15 If line impedance and internal resistance of the generator is only ohmic: If line impedance and internal resistance of the generator is only inductive: The maximum sensitivity angle corresponds to the R/ L component. The TRIP region of the directional element is determined by rotating the phasor on the maximum sensitivity angle for 90 , so that a reliable direction decision can be achieved in all faulty cases. Figure 4.6: TRIP/ NO-TRIP region for directional element in MRI3. In this case the foreward direction is defined as TRIP region and the backward direction as NO-TRIP region. By means of accurate hardware design and by using an efficient directional algorithm a high sensitivity for the voltage sensing circuit and a high accuracy for phase angle measurement are achieved so that a correct directional decision can be made even by close three-phase faults. As an addition, to avoid maloperations due to disturbances, at least 2 periods ( 40 ms at 50 Hz) are evaluated. For the MRI3-overcurrent relays with directional feature different time delays or time multipliers can be set for forward and backward faults ( ref. to chapter 5.4.3) . If the trip delay for backward faults is set longer than the one for forward faults, the protective relay works as a " backup" -relay for the other lines on the same busbar. This means that the relay can clear a fault in the backward direction with a longer time delay in case of refusal of the relay or the circuit breaker on the faulted line. If the trip delay for backward faults is set out of range ( on the display " EXIT" ) , the relay will not trip in case of backward faults. The assignment of the output relays can be used to select in which direction the failure is to be indicated ( refer also to Chapter 5.7.1) . It is possible to indicate the activation and/ or the tripping for each tripping direction via the output relays. 16 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 4.4 Earth fault protection 4.4.1 Generator stator earth fault protection With the generator neutral point earthed earthed as shown in Figure 4.7 the MRI3 picks up only to phase earth faults between the generator and the location of the current transformers supplying the relay. Earth faults beyond the current transformers, i.e. on the consumer or line side, will not be detected. Figure 4.7: Generator stator earth fault protection 4.4.2 System earth fault protection With the generator neutral point earthed as shown in Figure 4.8, the MRI3 picks up only to earth faults in the power system connected to the generator. It does not pick up to earth faults on the generator terminals or in generator stator. Figure 4.8: System earth fault protection TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 17 4.5 Earth-fault directional feature ( ER/ XR-relay type) A built-in earth-fault directional element is available for applications to power networks with isolated or with arc suppressing coil compensated neutral point. For earth-fault direction detection it is mainly the question to evaluate the power flow direction in zero sequence system. Both the residual voltage and neutral ( residual) current on the protected line are evaluated to ensure a correct direction decision. In isolated or compensated systems, measurement of reactive or active power is decisive for earth-fault detection. It is therefore necessary to set the ER/ XR-relay type to measure according to sin or cos methods, depending on the neutral-point connection method. The residual voltage UE required for determining earth fault direction can be measured in three different ways, depending on the voltage transformer connections. ( refer to Table 4.1) . Total current can be measured by connecting the unit either to a ring core C.T. or to current transformers in a Holmgreen circuit. However, maximum sensitivity is achieved if the MRl1 protective device is connected to a ring core C. T. ( see Figure 3.2) . The pick-up values IE> and IE> > ( active or reactive current component for cos or sin method) for ER-relay types can be adjusted from 0.01 to 0.45 x IN. For relay type MRI3-XR these pick-up values can be adjusted from 0.1 to 4.5% IN. Adjustment possibility Application Voltage transformer connections Measurd voltage at earth fault Correction factor for residual voltage 3pha 3-phase voltage transformer connected to terminals A3, A5, A7, A2 ( MRI3-IRER; MRI3-IER; MRI3-ER/ XR)  3 x UN = 3 x U1N K = 1 / 3 e-n e-n winding connected to terminals A3, A2 ( MRI3-IER; MRI3-ER/ XR) UN =  3 x U1N K = 1 /  3 1: 1 Neutral-point voltage ( = residual voltage) terminals A3, A2 ( MRI3-IER; MRI3-ER/ XR) U1N = UNE K = 1 Table 4.1: Connection of the voltage transformers 18 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Figure 4.9: Phase position between the residual voltage and zero sequence current for faulted and non-faulted lines in case of isolated systems ( sin ) UE - residual voltage IE - zero sequence current IC - capacitive component of zero sequence current IW - resistive component of zero sequence current By calculating the reactive current component ( sin adjustment) and then comparing the phase angle in relation to the residual voltage UE, the ER/ XR-relay type determines whether the line to be protected is earth-faulted. On non-earth-faulted lines, the capacitive component Ic( a) of the total current precedes the residual voltage by an angle of 90 . In case of a faulty line the capacity current IC( b) lags behind the residual voltage at 90 . Figure 4.10: Phase position between the residual voltage and zero sequence current for faulted and non-faulted lines in case of compensated systems ( cos ) UE - residual voltage IE - zero sequence current IL - inductive component of zero sequence current ( caused by Petersen coil) IC - capacitive component of zero sequence current IW - resistive component of zero sequence current In compensated mains the earthfault direction cannot be determined from the reactive current components because the reactive part of the earth current depends upon the compensation level of the mains. The ohmic component of the total current ( calculated by cos adjustment) is used in order to determine the direction. The resistive component in the non-faulted line is in phase with the residual voltage, while the resistive component in the faulted line is opposite in phase with the residual voltage. By means of an efficient digital filter harmonics and fault transients in the fault current are suppressed. Thus, the uneven harmonics which, for instance, are caused an electric arc fault, do not impair the protective function. 19 TB MRI1 09.98 E 4.6 Determining earth short-circuit fault direction The SR-relay type is used in solidly-earthed or resistance- earthed systems for determining earth short-circuit fault direction. The measuring principle for determining the direction is based on phase angle measurement and therefore also on the coincidence-time measurement between earth current and zero sequence voltage. The zero sequence voltage U0 required for determining the earth short-circuit fault direction is generated internally in the secondary circuit of the voltage transformers. With SR/ ISR-relay types the zero sequence voltage U0 can be measured directly at the open delta winding ( e-n) . Connection A3/ A2. 4.6.1 Directly earthed system Most faults in a characteristic angle are predominantly inductive in character. The characteristic angle between current and voltage at which the greatest measuring sensitivity is achieved has therefore been selected to precede zero sequence voltage U0 by 110 . Figure 4.11: Characteristic angle in solidly earthed-systems ( SOLI) 4.6.2 Resistance earthed system Most faults in a resistance-earthed system are predominantly ohmic in character, with a small inductive part. The characteristic angle for these types of system has therefore been set at + 170 in relation to the zero sequence voltage U0 ( see Figure 4.12) . Figure 4.12: Characteristic angle in resistance-earthed systems ( RESI) The pickup range of the directional element is set by turning the current indicator at the characteristic angle through + 90 , to ensure reliable determination of the direction. Figure 4.13: Adjustable characteristical angle of 45 to 309 For all other applications the characteristical angle between 45 and 309 is free selectable 20 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 4.6.3 Connection possibilities of the voltage transformers for SR relay types Application Voltage transformer connections 3-phase voltage transformer connected to terminals A3, A5, A7, A2 ( MRI3-IRSR; MRI3-ISR; MRI3-SR) e-n winding connected to terminals A3, A2 ( MRI3-ISR; MRI3-SR) Neutral-point voltage ( = residual voltage) terminals A3, A2 ( MRI3-ISR; MRI3-SR) 4.7 Demand imposed on the main current transformers The current transformers have to be rated in such a way, that a saturation should not occur within the following operating current ranges: Independent time overcurrent function: K1 = 2 Inverse time overcurrent function: K1 = 20 High-set function: K1 = 1.2 - 1.5 K1 = Current factor related to set value Moreover, the current transformers have to be rated according to the maximum expected short circuit current in the network or in the protected objects. The low power consumption in the current circuit of MRI3, namely , IE> Measuring range overflow max. L1, L2, L3, E Setting values: phase ( I> ; CHAR I> ; tI> ; I> > ; tI> > ) earth ( IE> ; CHAR IE; tIE> ; IE> > ; tIE> > ; UE> ) Current settings Trip delay Characteristics one time for each parameter I > ; CHAR I> ; tI> ; I> > ; tI> > ; LED IE> ; CHAR IE; tIE> ; IE> > ; tIE> > ; UE> Current display as second rated repetition current Iprim ( phase) / Iprim ( earth) SEC ( 0.001-50.0 kA prim) L1, L2, L3, E Parameter switch/ external triggering of the fault recorder SET1, SET2, B_ S2, R_ S2, B_ FR, R_ FR, S2_ FR P2 LED blinking after activation FLSH, NOFL Characteristics DEFT, NINV, VINV, EINV, LINV, RINV CHAR I> Characteristics DEFT, NINV, VINV, EINV, LINV, RINV, RXIDG CHAR IE> Reset setting ( only available at inverse time characteristics) 0s / 60s I> ; CHAR I> ; tI> IE> ; CHAR IE> ; tIE> Relay characteristic angle for pase current directional feature RCA in degree ( ) LED ( green) Warning or Trip at earth fault measuring ( E- and ER/ XR-types) TRIP WARN IE> Measured method of the residual voltage UE 1) 3 PHA ; E-N ; 1: 1 UE> residual voltage setting voltage in volts UE> changeover of isolated ( sin ) or compensated ( cos ) networks ( for ER/ XR-type) SIN COS Change over of solidly/ resistance earthed networks ( SR-type) SOLI RESI Switch failure protection tCBFP Tripping protection switch failure protection CBFP After fault tripping Nominal frequency f= 50 / f= 60 Blocking of function EXIT until max. setting value LED of blocked parameter Slave address of serial interface 1 - 32 RS Baud-Rate 2) 1200-9600 RS Parity-Check 2) even odd no RS Recorded fault data Tripping currents and other fault data one time for each phase L1, L2, L3, E I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > , UE> Save parameter? SAV? Delete failure memory wait Enquiry failure memory FLT1; FLT2..... L1, L2, L3, E I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > , Trigger signal for the fault recorder TEST, P_ UP, A_ PI, TRIP FR Number of fault occurences S = 2, S = 4, S = 8 FR Display of date and time Y = 99, M = 10, D = 1, h = 12, m = 2, s = 12 Change over the blocking function PR_ B, TR_ B und ; I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > oder tI> , tI> > , tIE> , tIE> > 1) refer to 4.4 2) only Modbus 22 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Function Display shows Pressed push button Corresponding LED Blocking of the protection function BLOC, NO_ B I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > Save parameter! SAV! for about 3 s Software version First part ( e.g. D01-) Sec. part ( e.g. 8.00) one time for each part Manual trip TRI? three times Inquire password PSW? Relay tripped TRIP or after fault tripping Secret password input XXXX System reset SEG for about 3 s Table 5.1: possible indication messages on the display 1) refer to 4.4 2) only Modbus TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 23 5.2 Setting procedure After push button has been pressed, always the next measuring value is indicated. Firstly the operating measuring values are indicated and then the setting parameters. By pressing the push button the setting values can directly be called up and changed. Before parameter setting can be started the relevant password must be entered ( refer to chapter 4.4 of the " MR Digital Multifunctional Relay" description) . 5.3 System parameter 5.3.1 Display of measuring values as primary quantities ( Iprim phase) With this parameter it is possible to show the indication as primary measuring value. For this purpose the parameter must be set to be equal with the rated primary CT current. If the parameter is set to " SEK" , the measuring value is shown as a multiple of the rated secondary CT current. Example: The current transformer used is of 1500/ 5 A. The flowing current is 1380 A. The parameter is set to 1500 A and on the display " 1380 A" are shown. If the parameter is set to " SEK" , the value shown on the display is " 0.92" x In. Note: The pick-up value is set to a multiple of the rated secondary CT current. 5.3.2 Display of earth current as primary quantity ( Iprim earth) The parameter of this function is to be set in the same way as that described under 5.3.1. If the parameter is not set to " SEK" , to relay types MRI3-X and MRI3-XR it applies too, that the measuring value is shown as primary current in ampere. Apart from that the indication refers to % of IN. 5.3.3 Display of residual voltage UE as primary quantity ( Uprim/ Usec) The residual voltage can be shown as primary measuring value. For this parameter the transformation ratio of the VT has to be set accordingly. If the parameter is set to " SEK" , the measuring value is shown as rated secondary voltage. Example: The voltage transformer used is of 10 kV/ 100 V. The transformation ratio is 100 and this value has to be set accordingly. If still the rated secondary voltage should be shown, the parameter is to be set to 1. 5.3.4 Voltage transformer connection for residual voltage measuring ( 3pha/ e-n/ 1: 1) Depending on the connection of the voltage transformer of ER/ XR-relay types three possibilities of the residual voltage measurement can be chosen ( see chapter 4.5) . 5.3.5 Nominal frequency The adapted FFT-algorithm requires the nominal frequency as a parameter for correct digital sampling and filtering of the input currents. By pressing the display shows " f= 50" or " f= 60" . The desired nominal frequency can be adjusted by or and then stored with . 5.3.6 Display of the activation storage ( FLSH/ NOFL) If after an activation the existing current drops again below the pickup value, e.g. I> , without a trip has been initiated, LED I> signals that an activation has occurred by flashing fast. The LED keeps flashing until it is reset again ( push button ) . Flashing can be suppressed when the parameter is set to NOFL. 24 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 5.3.7 Parameter switch/ external triggering of the fault recorder By means of the parameter-change-over switches it is possible to activate two different parameter sets. Switching over of the parameter sets can either be done by means of software or via the external inputs RESET or blocking input. Alternatively, the external inputs can be used for Reset or blocking of the triggering of the fault recorder. Softwareparameter Blocking input used as RESET Input use as SET1 Blocking input RESET Input SET2 Blocking input RESET Input B_ S2 Parameter switch RESET Input R_ S2 Blocking input Parameter switch B_ FR Ext. triggering of the FR Reset input R_ FR Blocking input Ext. Trigger for FR S2_ FR Parameter switch Ext. Trigger for FR With the settings SET1 or SET2 the parameter set is activated by software. Terminals C8/ D8 and D8/ E8 are then available as external reset input or blocking input. With the setting B_ S2 the blocking input ( D8, E8) is used as parameter-set change-over switch. With the setting R_ S2 the reset input ( D8, E8) is used as parameter- set change-over switch. With the setting B_ FR the fault recorder is activated immediately by using the blocking input. On the front plate the LED FR will then light up for the duration of the recording. With the setting R_ FR the fault recorder is activated via the reset input. With the setting S2_ FR parameter set 2 can be activated via the blocking input and/ or the fault recorder via the reset input. The relevant function is then activated by applying the auxiliary voltage to one of the external inputs. Important note: When functioning as parameter change over facility, the external input RESET is not available for resetting. When using the external input BLOCKING the protection functions must be deactivated by software blocking separately ( refer to chapter 5.7.1) . 5.4 Parameter protection 5.4.1 Pickup current for phase overcurrent element ( I> ) The setting value for this parameter that appears on the display is related to the nominal current ( IN) of the relay. This means: pickup current ( Is) = displayed value x nominal current ( IN) e.g. displayed value = 1.25 then, Is = 1.25 x IN. 5.4.2 Time current characteristics for phase overcurrent element ( CHAR I> ) By setting this parameter, one of the following 6 messages appears on the display: DEFT - Definite Time NINV - Normal Inverse VINV - Very Inverse EINV - Extremely Inverse RINV - RI-Inverse LINV - Long Time Inverse Anyone of these four characteristics can be changed by using -push buttons, and can be stored by using -push button. 5.4.3 Trip delay or time factor for phase overcurrent element ( tI> ) Usually, after the characteristic is changed, the time delay or the time multiplier should be changed accordingly. In order to avoid an unsuitable arrangement of relay modes due to carelessness of the operator, the following precautions are taken: If, through a new setting, another relay characteristic other than the old one has been chosen ( e.g. from DEFT to NINV) , but the time delay setting has not been changed despite the warning from the flashing LED, the relay will be set to the most sensitive time setting value of the selected characteristics after five minutes warning of flashing LED tI> . The most sensitive time setting value means the fastest tripping for the selected relay characteristic. If a definite time characteristic has been selected, the display shows the trip delay in seconds. When selecting an inverse time characteristic, the time multiplier appears on the display. Both settings can be charges by push-buttons . When the time delay or the time multiplier is set out of range ( Text " EXIT" appears on the display) , the low set element of the overcurrent relay is blocked. The " WARN" - relay will not be blocked. TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 25 For the MRI3-version with directional feature, the different trip time delays or the time multipliers can be chosen for forward and backward faults. By setting the trip delay, the actual set value for forward faults appears on the display first and the LED under the arrows is alight green. It can be changed with push button and then stored with push button . After that, the actual trip delay ( or time factor) for backward faults appears on the display by pressing push button and the LED under the arrows is alight red. Usually this set value should be set longer than the one for forward faults, so that the relay obtains its selectivity during forward faults. If the time delays are set equally for both forward and backward faults, the relay trips in both cases with the same time delay, namely without directional feature. Note: When selecting dependent tripping characteristics at relays with directional phase current detection, attention must be paid that a clear directional detection will be assured only after expiry of 40 ms. 5.4.4 Reset setting for all tripping characteristics in the phase current path To ensure tripping, even with recurring fault pulses shorter than the set trip delay, the reset mode for inverse time tripping characteristics can be switched over. If the adjustment tRST is set at 60 s, the tripping time is only reset after 60 s faultless condition. This function is not available if tRST is set to 0. With fault current cease the trip delay is reset immediately and started again at recurring fault current. 5.4.5 Current setting for high set element ( I> > ) The current setting value of this parameter appearing on the display is related to the rated current of the relay. This means: I> > = displayed value x IN. When the current setting for high set element is set out of range ( on display appears " EXIT" ) , the high set element of the overcurrent relay is blocked. The high set element can be blocked via terminals E8/ D8 if the corresponding blocking parameter is set to bloc ( refer to chapter 5.7.1) . 5.4.6 Trip delay for high set element ( tI> > ) Independent from the chosen tripping characteristic for I> , the high set element I> > has always a definite-time tripping characteristic. An indication value in seconds appears on the display. The setting procedure for forward- or backward faults, described in chapter 5.4.3, is also valid for the tripping time of the high set element. 5.4.7 Relay characteristic angle RCA The characteristic angle for directional feature in the phase current path can be set by parameter RCA to 15 , 27 , 38 , 49 , 61 , 72 or 83 , leading to the respective reference voltage ( see chapter 4.3) . 5.4.8 Pickup value for residual voltage UE ( ER/ XR-relay type) Regardless of the preset earth current, an earth fault is only identified if the residual voltage exceeds the set reference value. This value is indicated in volt. 5.4.9 Pickup current for earth fault element ( IE> ) ( Similar to chapter 5.4.1) The pickup value of X and XR-relay type relates to % IN. 5.4.10 WARN/ TRIP changeover ( E/ X and ER/ XR-relay type) A detected earth fault can be parameterized as follows. After delay time. a) " warn" only the alarm relay trips b) " trip" the trip relay trips and tripping values are stored. 26 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 5.4.11 Time current characteristics for earth fault element ( CHAR IE) ( not for ER/ XR-relay type) By setting this parameter, one of the following 7 messages appears on the display: DEFT - Definite Time ( independent overcurrent time protection) NINV - Normal inverse ( Type A) VINV - Very inverse ( Type B) EINV - Extremely inverse ( Type C) RINV RI-Inverse LINV Long Time Inverse RXID Special characteristic Anyone of these four characteristics can be chosen by using -pushbuttons, and can be stored by using -pushbutton. 5.4.12 Trip delay or time multiplier for earth fault element ( tIE> > ) ( Similar to chapter 5.4.3) 5.4.13 Reset mode for inverse time tripping in earth current path ( Similar to chapter 5.4.4) 5.4.14 Current setting for high set element of earth fault supervision ( IE> > ) ( Similar to chapter 5.4.5) The pickup value of X and XR-relay type relates to % IN. 5.4.15 Trip delay for high set element of earth fault supervision ( tIE> > ) ( Similar to chapter 5.4.6) 5.4.16 COS/ SIN Measurement ( ER/ XR-relay type) Depending on the neutral earthing connection of the protected system the directional element of the earth fault relay must be preset to cos or sin measurement. By pressing the display shows " COS" resp. " SIN" . The desired measuring principle can be selected by or and must be entered with password. 5.4.17 SOLI/ RESI changeover ( SR-relay type) Depending on the method of neutral-point connection of the system to be protected, the directional element for the earth-current circuit must be set to " SOLI" ( = solidly earthed) or " RESI" = ( resistance earthed) . 5.4.18 Block/ Trip time The block/ trip time serves for detection of a c.b. failure protection by rear interlocking. It is activated by setting the blocking input D8/ E8 and by setting the parameter to TR_ B. After the set block/ trip time has expired, the relay can be tripped if the excitation of a protective function has been applied the delay time of which has expired and the blocking function is still active. If the parameter PR_ B is set, the individual protection stages are blocked ( refer to Chapter 5.7.1) . 5.4.19 Circuit breaker failure protection tCBFP The CB failure protection is based on supervision of phase currents during tripping events. Only after tripping this protective function becomes active. The test criterion is whether all phase currents are dropped to ; IE> ; IE> > are simultaneously alight in case of protective blocking " PR_ B" and LEDs tI> ; tI> > ; tIE> , tIE> > simultaneously emit light in case of trip blocking " TR_ B" . Actuation of the key with a one-time entry of the password will store the set function. After this actuate the key to call up the first blockable protection function. The display will show the text " BLOC" ( the respective function is blocked) or " NO_ B" ( the respective function is not blocked. Actuation of the key will store the set function. By pressing the pushbutton, all further protective function that can be blocked are called one after the other. After selection of the last blocking function renewed pressing of the pushbutton switches to the assignment mode of the output relays. Function Display LED/ Colour Blocking of the protection stage PR_ B I> ; I> > ; IE> ; IE> > Blocking of the trip function TR_ B tI> ; tI> > ; tIE> ; tIE> > I> Overcurrent NO_ B I> red I> > Short circuit BLOC I> > red IE> Earth current 1st element NO_ B IE> red IE> > Earth current 2nd element NO_ B IE> > red tCBFP Circuit breaker failure protection NO_ B CB green Table 5.2: Default settings of both parameter sets Assignment of the output relays: Unit MRI3 has five output relays. The fifth output relay is provided as permanent alarm relay for self supervision is normally on. Output relays 1 - 4 are normally off and can be assigned as alarm or tripping relays to the current functions which can either be done by using the push buttons on the front plate or via serial interface RS485. The assignment of the output relays is similar to the setting of parameters, however, only in the assignment mode. The assignment mode can be reached only via the blocking mode. By pressing push button in blocking mode again, the assignment mode is selected. The relays are assigned as follows: LEDs I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > are two-coloured and light up green when the output relays are assigned as alarm relays and red as tripping relays. In addition, the LED also lights up with each adjustment. Green means forward and red backward direction. Definition: Alarm relays are activated at pickup. Tripping relays are only activated after elapse of the tripping delay. TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 29 After the assignment mode has been activated, first LED I> lights up green. Now one or several of the four output relays can be assigned to current element I> as alarm relays. At the same time the selected alarm relays for frequency element 1 are indicated on the display. Indication " 1_ _ _ " means that output relay 1 is assigned to this current element. When the display shows " _ _ _ _ " , no alarm relay is assigned to this current element. The assignment of output relays 1 - 4 to the current elements can be changed by pressing and push buttons. The selected assignment can be stored by pressing push button and subsequent input of the password. By pressing push button , LED I> lights up red. The output relays can now be assigned to this current element as tripping relays. Relays 1 - 4 are selected in the same way as described before. By repeatedly pressing of the push button and assignment of the relays all elements can be assigned separately to the relays. The assignment mode can be terminated at any time by pressing the push button for some time ( abt. 3 s) . Note: The function of jumper J2 described in general description " MR Digital Multifunctional Relays" has no function. For relays without assignment mode this jumper is used for parameter setting of alarm relays ( activation at pickup or tripping) . A form is attached to this description where the setting requested by the customer can be filled-in. This form is prepared for fax transmission and can be used for your own reference as well as for telephone queries. Relay function Output relays Display- Lighted LED 2 3 4 indication I> ( V) alarm X _ 2 _ _ I> ; green tI> ( V) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tI> ; green I> ( R) alarm X _ 2 _ _ I> ; red tI> ( R) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tI> ; red I> > ( V) alarm X _ _ 3 _ I> > ; green tI> > ( V) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tI> > ; green I> > ( R) alarm X _ _ 3 _ I> > ; red tI> > ( R) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tI> > ; red IE> ( V) alarm X _ _ _ 4 IE> ; green tIE> ( V) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tIE> ; green IE> ( R) alarm X _ _ _ 4 IE> > ; red tIE> ( R) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tIE> > ; red IE> > ( V) alarm X _ _ _ 4 IE> > ; green tIE> > ( V) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tIE> > ; green IE> > ( R) alarm X _ _ _ 4 IE> > ; red tIE> > ( R) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tIE> > ; red tCBFP tripping _ _ _ _ C.B.; red ( V) = forward direction; ( R) = backward direction This way, a tripping relay can be set for each activation and tripping direction. Table 5.4: Example of assignment matrix of the output relays ( default settings) . 30 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 5.8 Setting value calculation 5.8.1 Definite time overcurrent element Low set element ( I> ) The pickup current setting is determined by the load capacity of the protected object and by the smallest fault current within the operating range. The pickup current is usually selected about 20% for power lines, about 50% for transformers and motors above the maximum expected load currents. The delay of the trip signal is selected with consideration to the demand on the selectivity according to system time grading and overload capacity of the protected object. High set element ( I> > ) The high set element is normally set to act for near-by faults. A very good protective reach can be achieved if the impedance of the protected object results in a well-defined fault current. In case of a line-transformer combination the setting values of the high set element can even be set for the fault inside the transformer. The time delay for high set element is always independent to the fault current. 5.8.2 Inverse time overcurrent element Beside the selection of the time current characteristic one set value each for the phase current path and earth current path is adjusted. Low set element I> The pickup current is determined according to the maximum expected load current. For example: Current transformer ratio: 400/ 5 A Maximum expected load current: 300 A Overload coefficient: 1.2 ( assumed) Starting current setting: Is = ( 300/ 400) x 1.2 = 0.9 x IN Time multiplier setting The time multiplier setting for inverse time overcurrent is a scale factor for the selected characteristics. The characteristics for two adjacent relays should have a time interval of about 0.3 - 0.4 s. High set element I> > The high set current setting is set as a multiplier of the nominal current. The time delay tI> > is always independent to the fault current. 5.9 Indication of measuring and fault values 5.9.1 Indication of measuring values The following measuring quantities can be indicated on the display during normal service: Apparent current in phase 1 ( LED L1 green) , active current in Phase 1 ( LED L1 and IP green) , * reactive current in Phase 1 ( LED L1 and IQ green) , * apparent current in phase 2 ( LED L2 green) , active current in Phase 2 ( LED L2 and IP green) , * reactive current in Phase 2 ( LED L2 and IQ green) , * apparent current in phase 3 ( LED L3 green) , active current in Phase 3 ( LED L3 and IP green) , * reactive current in Phase 3 ( LED L3 and IQ green) , * apparent earth current ( LED E green) , active earth current ( LED E and IP green) , * reactive earth current ( LED E and IQ green) , * residual voltage UR ( LED UE) only at ER/ XR-relay type, angle between IE and UE ( only ER/ XR) ( LED E green, LED IE> yellow and LED UE> yellow) . * only in case that the directional option is built in. The indicated current measuring values refer to rated current. ( For MRI3-XR/ X relays the indicated measuring values refer to % of IN) TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 31 5.9.2 Units of the measuring values displayed The measuring values can optionally be shown in the display as a multiple of the " sec" rated value ( xln) or as primary current ( A) . According to this the units of the display change as follows: Phase current: Indication as Range Unit Secondary current Active portion IP Reactive portion IQ 0.00 40.0 .00 40 .00 40. x In x In x In Primary current .000 999. k000 k999 1k00 9k99 10k0 99k0 100k 999k 1M00 2M00 A kA* kA kA kA MA active portion IP .00 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 10k 99k M10 M99 1M0 2M0 A kA* kA kA MA MA Reactive portion IQ .00 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 10k 99k M10 M99 1M0 2M0 A kA* kA kA MA MA * rated current transformer > 2kA Earth current ( sensitive) : Indication as Range Unit Secondary current Active portion IP Reactive portion IQ ( X/ XR types) .000 15.0 .00 15 .00 15 x In x In x In Primary earth current 00m0 99m9 100m 999m .000 999. k000 k999 1k00 9k99 mA* mA* A kA* kA Active portion IP 00m - 99m .10 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 mA* A kA* * kA Reactive portion IQ 00m - 99m .00 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 mA* A kA* * kA * rated current transformer 0.019kA * * rated current transformer 20kA Earth current ( normal) : Indication as Range Unit Secondary current Active portion IP Reactive portion IQ ( E/ SR/ ER types) .000 15.0 .00 15 .00 15. x In x In x In Primary earth current .000 999. k000 k999 1k00 9k99 10k0 99k0 100k 999k 1M00 2M00 A kA* kA kA kA MA Active portion IP .00 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 10k 99k M10 M99 1M0 2M0 A kA* kA kA MA MA Reactive portion IQ .00 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 10k 99k M10 M99 1M0 2M0 A kA* kA kA MA MA * rated current transformer > 2kA Earth voltage: Indication as Range Unit sec. Voltage 000V 999V V primary voltage .000 999V 1K00 9K99 10K0 99K9 100K 999K 1M00 3M00 KV KV KV KV MV 5.9.3 Indication of fault data All faults detected by the relay are indicated on the front plate optically. For this purpose, the four LEDs ( L1, L2, L3, E) and the four function LEDs ( I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > und ) are equipped at MRI3. Not only fault messages are transmitted, the display also indicates the tripped protection function. If, for example an overcurrent occurs, first the corresponding LEDs will light up. LED I> lights up at the same time. After tripping the LEDs are lit permanently. 32 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 5.9.4 Fault memory When the relay is energized or trips, all fault data and times are stored in a non-volatile memory manner. The MRI3 is provided with a fault value recorder for max. five fault occurrences. In the event of additional trippings always the oldest data set is written over. For fault indication not only the trip values are recorded but also the status of LEDs. Fault values are indicated when push buttons or are pressed during normal measuring value indication. Normal measuring values are selected by pressing the button. When then the button is pressed, the latest fault data set is shown. By repeated pressing the button the last but one fault data set is shown etc. For indication of fault data sets abbreviations FLT1, FLT2, FLT3, ... are displayed ( FLT1 means the latest fault data set recorded) . At the same time the parameter set active at the occurrence is shown. By pressing the fault measuring values can be scrolled. By pressing it can be scrolled back to a more recent fault data set. At first FLT8, FLT7, ... are always displayed. When fault recording is indicated ( FLT1 etc) , the LEDs flash in compliance with the stored trip information, i.e. those LEDs which showed a continuous light when the fault occurred are now blinking blinking to indicate that it is not a current fault. LEDs which were blinking blinking during trip conditions, ( element had picked up) just briefly flash. If the relay is still in trip condition and not yet reset ( TRIP is still displayed) , no measuring values can be shown. To delete the trip store, the push button combination and has to be pressed for about 3s. The display shows wait . Recorded fault values: Value displayed Relevant LED Phase currents L1, L2, L3 in I/ In L1, L2, L3 Earth current IE in I/ IEn E C.B. switching time in s 1) C.B. Expired tripping time of I> in % of tI> 2) I> Expired tripping time of IE> in % of tIE> 2) IE> Time stamp Date: Y = 99 M = 04 D = 20 time: h = 11 m = 59 s = 13 Table 5.3 1) C.B. tripping time: Time between energizing of the trip output relay and switching of the C.B. ( current and IE> . 5.10 Reset Unit MRI3 has the following three possibilities to reset thedisplay of the unit as well as the output relay at jumper position J3= ON. Manual Reset Pressing the push button for some time ( about 3 s) Electrical Reset Through applying auxiliary voltage to C8/ D8 Software Reset The software reset has the same effect as the push button ( see also communication protocol of RS485 interface) . The display can only be reset when the pickup is not present anymore ( otherwise " TRIP" remains in display) . During resetting of the display the parameters are not affected. 5.10.1 Erasure of fault storage The fault storage is erased by pressing the key combination and for about 3 s. At the display " Wait" appears. TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 33 6 Relay testing and commissioning The test instructions following below help to verify the protection relay performance before or during commissioning of the protection system. To avoid a relay damage and to ensure a correct relay operation, be sure that: The auxiliary power supply rating corresponds to the auxiliary voltage on site. The rated current and rated voltage of the relay correspond to the plant data on site. The current transformer circuits and voltage transformer circuits are connected to the relay correctly. All signal circuits and output relay circuits are connected correctly. 6.1 Power-On NOTE! Prior to switch on the auxiliary power supply, be sure that the auxiliary supply voltage corresponds with the rated data on the type plate. Switch on the auxiliary power supply to the relay and check that the message " ISEG" appears on the display and the self supervision alarm relay ( watchdog) is energized ( Contact terminals D7 and E7 closed) . 6.2 Testing the output relays and LEDs NOTE! Prior to commencing this test, interrupt the trip circuit to the circuit breaker if tripping is not desired. By pressing the push button once, the display shows the first part of the software version of the relay ( e.g. D08- ) . By pressing the push button twice, the display shows the second part of the software version of the relay ( e.g. 4.01 ) . The software version should be quoted in all correspondence. Pressing the button once more, the display shows " PSW? " . Please enter the correct password to proceed with the test. The message " TRI? " will follow. Confirm this message by pressing the push button again. All output relays should then be activated and the self supervision alarm relay ( watchdog) be deactivated one after another with a time interval of 3 second and all LEDs with a delay of 0.5 seconds, with the self-supervision relay dropping. Thereafter, reset all output relays back to their normal positions by pressing the push button ( about 3 s) . 6.3 Checking the set
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Detail SEG RELAY MR13-IRSR And SEG RELAY MR13-IE

MRI3 - Digital multifunctional relay for overcurrent protection 2 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Contents 1 Introduction and application 2 Features and characteristics 3 Design 3.1 Connections 3.1.1 Analog input circuits 3.1.2 Output relays 3.1.3 Blocking input 3.1.4 External reset input 3.2 Relay output contacts 3.2.1 Fault recorder 3.2.2 Parameter settings ( see chapter 5) 3.3 LEDs 4 Working principle 4.1 Analog circuits 4.2 Digital circuits 4.3 Directional feature 4.3.1 Reversal in direction during the activation phase 4.4 Earth fault protection 4.4.1 Generator stator earth fault protection 4.4.2 System earth fault protection 4.5 Earth-fault directional feature ( ER/ XR-relay type) 4.6 Determining earth short-circuit fault direction 4.6.1 Directly earthed system 4.6.2 Resistance earthed system 4.6.3 Connection possibilities of the voltage transformers for SR relay types 4.7 Demand imposed on the main current transformers 5 Operation and settings 5.1 Display 5.2 Setting procedure 5.3 System parameter 5.3.1 Display of measuring values as primary quantities ( Iprim phase) 5.3.2 Display of earth current as primary quantity ( Iprim earth) 5.3.3 Display of residual voltage UE as primary quantity ( Uprim/ Usec) 5.3.4 Voltage transformer connection for residual voltage measuring ( 3pha/ e-n/ 1: 1) 5.3.5 Nominal frequency 5.3.6 Display of the activation storage ( FLSH/ NOFL) 5.3.7 Parameter switch/ external triggering of the fault recorder 5.4 Parameter protection 5.4.1 Pickup current for phase overcurrent element ( I> ) 5.4.2 Time current characteristics for phase overcurrent element ( CHAR I> ) 5.4.3 Trip delay or time factor for phase overcurrent element ( tI> ) 5.4.4 Reset setting for all tripping characteristics in the phase current path 5.4.5 Current setting for high set element ( I> > ) 5.4.6 Trip delay for high set element ( tI> > ) 5.4.7 Relay characteristic angle RCA 5.4.8 Pickup value for residual voltage UE ( ER/ XR-relay type) 5.4.9 Pickup current for earth fault element ( IE> ) 5.4.10 WARN/ TRIP changeover ( E/ X and ER/ XR-relay type) 5.4.11 Time current characteristics for earth fault element ( CHAR IE) ( not for ER/ XR-relay type) 5.4.12 Trip delay or time multiplier for earth fault element ( tIE> > ) 5.4.13 Reset mode for inverse time tripping in earth current path 5.4.14 Current setting for high set element of earth fault supervision ( IE> > ) 5.4.15 Trip delay for high set element of earth fault supervision ( tIE> > ) 5.4.16 COS/ SIN Measurement ( ER/ XR-relay type) 5.4.17 SOLI/ RESI changeover ( SR-relay type) 5.4.18 Block/ Trip time 5.4.19 Circuit breaker failure protection tCBFP 5.4.20 Adjustment of the slave address 5.4.21 Setting of Baud-rate ( applies for Modbus Protocol only) 5.4.22 Setting of parity ( applies for Modbus Protocol only) 5.5 Fault recorder 5.5.1 Adjustment of the fault recorder 5.5.2 Number of the fault recordings 5.5.3 Adjustment of trigger occurrences 5.5.4 Pre-trigger time ( Tpre) 5.6 Adjustment of the clock 5.7 Additional functions 5.7.1 Blocking the protection functions and assignment of the output relays 5.8 Setting value calculation 5.8.1 Definite time overcurrent element 5.8.2 Inverse time overcurrent element 5.9 Indication of measuring and fault values 5.9.1 Indication of measuring values 5.9.2 Units of the measuring values displayed 5.9.3 Indication of fault data 5.9.4 Fault memory 5.10 Reset 5.10.1 Erasure of fault storage TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 3 6 Relay testing and commissioning 6.1 Power-On 6.2 Testing the output relays and LEDs 6.3 Checking the set values 6.4 Secondary injection test 6.4.1 Test equipment 6.4.2 Example of test circuit for MRI3 relays without directional feature 6.4.3 Checking the input circuits and measured values 6.4.4 Checking the operating and resetting values of the relay 6.4.5 Checking the relay operating time 6.4.6 Checking the high set element of the relay 6.4.7 Example of a test circuit for MRI3 relay with directional feature 6.4.8 Test circuit earth fault directional feature 6.4.9 Checking the external blocking and reset functions 6.4.10 Testing the external blocking with Block/ Trip function 6.4.11 Test of the CB failure protection 6.5 Primary injection test 6.6 Maintenance 7 Technical data 7.1 Measuring input circuits 7.2 Common data 7.3 Setting ranges and steps 7.3.1 Time overcurrent protection ( I-Type) 7.3.2 Earth fault protection ( SR-Type) 7.3.3 Earth fault protection ( E/ X-Type) 7.3.4 Earth fault protection ( ER/ XR-Type) 7.3.5 Block/ Trip time 7.3.6 Switch failure protection 7.3.7 Interface parameter 7.3.8 Parameter for the fault recorder 7.3.9 Inverse time overcurrent protection relay 7.3.10 Direction unit for phase overcurrent relay 7.3.11 Determination of earth fault direction ( MRl3-ER/ XR) 7.3.12 Determination of earth fault direction ( MRl3-SR) 7.4 Inverse time characteristics 7.5 Output contacts 8 Order form 4 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 1 Introduction and application The MRl3 digital multifunctional relay is a universal time overcurrent and earth fault protection device intended for use in medium-voltage systems, either with an isolated/ compensated neutral point or for networks with a solidly earthed/ resistance-earthed neutral point. The protective functions of MRI3 which are implemented in only one device are summarized as follows: Independent ( Definite) time overcurrent relay, inverse time overcurrent relay with selectable characteristics, integrated determination of fault direction for application to doubly infeeded lines or meshed systems, two-element ( low and high set) earth fault protection with definite or inverse time characteristics, integrated determination of earth fault direction for application to power system networks with isolated or arc suppressing coil ( Peterson coil) neutral earthing. ( ER/ XR-relay type) , integrated determination of earth short-circuit fault direction in systems with solidly-earthed neutral point or in resistance-earthed systems ( SR-relay type) . Furthermore, the relay MRI3 can be employed as a back-up protection for distance and differential protective relays. A similar, but simplified version of overcurrent relay IRI1 with reduced functions without display and serial interface is also available. Important: For additional common data of all MR-relays please refer to manual " MR - Digital Multifunctional relays" . On page 51 of this manual you can find the valid software versions. 2 Features and characteristics Digital filtering of the measured values by using discrete Fourier analysis to suppress the high frequence harmonics and DC components induced by faults or system operations, two parameter sets, selectable protective functions between: definite time overcurrent relay and inverse time overcurrent relay, selectable inverse time characteristics according to IEC 255-4: Normal Inverse ( Type A) Very Inverse ( Type B) Extremely Inverse ( Type C) Special characteristics, reset setting for inverse time characteristics selectable, high set overcurrent unit with instantaneous or definite time function, two-element ( low and high set) overcurrent relay both for phase and earth faults, directional feature for application to the doubly infeeded lines or meshed systems, earth fault directional feature selectable for either isolated or compensated networks, sensitive earth fault current measuring with or without directional feature ( X and XR-relay type) , determination of earth short-circuit fault direction for systems with solidly-earthed or resistance-earthed neutral point, numerical display of setting values, actual measured values and their active, reactive components, memorized fault data, etc., display of measuring values as primary quantities, withdrawable modules with automatic short circuiters of C.T. inputs when modules are withdrawn, blocking e.g. of high set element ( e.g. for selective fault detection through minor overcurrent protection units after unsuccessful AR) , relay characteristic angle for phase current directional feature selectable, circuit breaker failure protection, storage of trip values and switching-off time ( tCBFP) of 5 fault occurences ( fail-safe of voltage) , recording of up to eight fault occurences with time stamp, free assignment of output relays serial data exchange via RS485 interface possible; alternatively with SEG RS485 Pro-Open Data Protocol or Modbus Protocol, suppression of indication after an activation ( LED flash) , display of date and time TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 5 3 Design 3.1 Connections Phase and earth current measuring: Figure 3.1: Measuring of the phase currents for over-current- and short-circuit protection ( I> , I> > ) Figure 3.2: Earth-fault measuring by means of ring-core C.T. ( IE) When phase-- and earth-fault current measuring are combined, the connection has to be realized as per Figure 3.1and Figure 3.2 or Figure 3.3. Figure 3.3: Phase current measuring and earth-current detection by means of Holmgreen-circuit. This connection can be used with three existing phase current transformers when combined phase and earthcurrent measuring is required. Disadvantage of holmgreen-circuit: At saturation of one or more C.Ts the relay detects seeming an earth current. * This arrow shows the current flow in forward direction, for this LED lights up green 6 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Voltage measuring for the directional detection: Figure 3.4: Measuring of the phase voltages for the directional detection at overcurrent, short-circuit or earth-fault protection ( I> , I> > , IE> and IE> > ) . For details on the connection of ER/ XR-unit type c.t.s, see para 4.5. I> I> I> A3 L1 U1 U2 A5 L2 A7 L3 A2 N U3 L1 L2 L3 a b c Figure 3.5: Voltage transformer in V-connection for the directional detection at overcurrent and short-circuit protection. The V-connection can not be applied at earth fault directional feature. 3.1.1 Analog input circuits The protection unit receives the analog input signals of the phase currents IL1 ( B3-B4) , IL2 ( B5-B6) , IL3 B7-B8) and the current IE ( B1-B2) , phase voltages U1 ( A3) , U2 ( A5) , U3 ( A7) with A2 as star point, each via separate input transformers. The constantly detected current measuring values are galvanically decoupled, filtered and finally fed to the analog/ digital converter. For the unit type with earthfault directional features ( ER/ XR-relay type) the residual voltage UE in the secondary circuit of the voltage transformers is internally formed. In case no directional feature for the phase current path is necessary the residual voltage from the open delta winding can directly be connected to A3 and A2. See Chapter 4.5 for voltage transformer connections on isolated/ compensated systems. 3.1.2 Output relays The MRI3 is equipped with 5 output relays. Apart from the relay for self-supervision, all protective functions can be optionally assigned: Relay 1: C1, D1, E1 and C2, D2, E2 Relay 2: C3, D3, E3 and C4, D4, E4 Relay 3: C5, D5, E5 Relay 4: C6, D6, E6 Relay 5: Self-supervision C7, D7, E7 All trip and alarm relays are working current relays, the relay for self supervision is an idle current relay. 3.1.3 Blocking input The blocking functions adjusted before will be blocked if an auxiliary voltage is connected to ( terminals) D8/ E8. ( See chapter 5.7.1) 3.1.4 External reset input Please refer to chapter 5.10. TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 7 3.2 Relay output contacts Figure 3.6 3.2.1 Fault recorder The MRI3 is equipped with a disturbance value recorder which records the measured analogue values as momentary values. The momentary values iL1, iL2, iL3, iE, are scanned within a grid 1.25 ms ( with 50 Hz) or 1.041 ms ( with 60 Hz) and filed in a circulating storage. The max. storage capacity amounts to 16 s ( with 50 Hz) or 13.33 s ( with 60 Hz) . Storage division Independent of the recording time, the entire storage capacity can be divided into several cases of disturbance with a shorter recording time each. In addition, the deletion behaviour of the fault recorder can be influenced. No writing over If 2, 4 or 8 recordings are chosen, the complete memory is divided into the relevant number of partial segments. If this max. number of fault event has been exceeded, the fault recorder block any further recordings in order to prevent that the stored data are written over. After the data have been read and deleted, the recorder to ready again for further action. Writing over If 1, 3 or 7 recordings are chosen, the relevant number of partial segments is reserved in the complete memory. If the memory is full, a new recording will always write over the oldest one. The memory part of the fault recorder is designed as circulating storage. In this example 7 fault records can be stored ( written over) . Memory space 6 to 4 is occupied. Memory space 5 is currently being written in Figure 3.7: Division of the memory into 8 segments, for example Since memory spaces 6, 7 and 8 are occupied, this example shows that the memory has been assigned more than eight recordings. This means that No. 6 is the oldest fault recording and No. 4 the most recent one. 8 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB trigger occurence recording duration Tpre [ s] Figure 3.8: Recording scheme of the fault recorder with pre-trigger time Each memory segment has a specified storage time which permits setting of a time prior to the trigger event. Via the interface RS485 the data can be read and processed by means of a PC with HTL/ PL-Soft4. The data is graphically edited and displayed. Binary tracks are recorded as well, e.g. activation and trip. TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 9 3.2.2 Parameter settings ( see chapter 5) System parameter Relay type MRI3- I IE IX IRE IRX IR IER IXR IRER IRXR ER XR E X ISR IRSR SR Display of measuring values as primary quantities ( Iprim phase) X X X X X X X X Display of earth current as primary quantities ( Iprim earth) X X X X X X X X X Display of residual voltage UE as primary quantity ( Uprim/ Usec) X X X 3pha/ e-n/ 1: 1 X X X 50/ 60 Hz X X X X X X X X X X X LED-Flash X X X X X X X X X X X RS 485/ Slaveaddress X X X X X X X X X X X Baud-Rate 1) X X X X X X X X X X X Parity-Check 1) X X X X X X X X X X X Adjustment of the clock: Y = year; M = month; D = day; h = hour; m = minute; s = sec. X X X X X X X X X X X Table 3.1: System parameters of the different relay types Protection parameter Relay type MRI3- I IE IX IRE IRX IR IER IXR IRER IRXR ER XR E X ISR IRSR SR 2 parameter sets X X X X X X X X X X X I> X X X X X X X X CHAR I> X X X X X X X X tI> X X X X X X X X 0 s/ 60 s 2) X X X X X X X X I> > X X X X X X X X tI> > X X X X X X X X RCA X X X X UE X X X IE> X X X X X X X X X warn/ trip X X X X X X CHAR IE X X X X X X tIE X X X X X X X X X 0s / 60 s 3) X X X X X X IE> > X X X X X X X X X tIE> > X X X X X X X X X sin/ cos X X X soli/ resi X X X tCBFP X X X X X X X X X X X Block/ Trip X X X X X X X X X X X Table 3.2: Protection parameters of the different relay types. 1) Only devices with Modbus-Protocol 2) Reset setting for inverse time characteristics in phase current path 3) Reset setting for inverse time characteristics in earth current path 10 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Parameter for the fault recorder Relay type MRI3- I IE IX IRE IRX IR IER IXR IRER IRXR ER XR E X ISR IRSR SR Number of fault events X X X X X X X X X X X Trigger events X X X X X X X X X X X Pre-trigger time ( Tpre) X X X X X X X X X X X Table 3.3: Parameters for the fault recorder of the different relay types Additional parameters Relay-type MRI3- I IE IX IRE IRX IR IER IXR IRER IRXR ER XR E X ISR IRSR SR Blocking mode 1) X X X X X X X X X X X Relay parameterizing X X X X X X X X X X X Fault recorder X X X X X X X X Table 3.4: Additional parameters of the different relay types 1) For 2 parameter sets ( separately for each parameter set) TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 11 Figure 3.9: Front plate MRI3-I Figure 3.10: Front plate MRI3-E/ X Figure 3.11: Front plate MRI3-IR Figure 3.12: Front plate MRI3-ER/ XR 12 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Figure 3.13: Front plate MRI3-SR Figure 3.14: Front plate MRI3-IRER/ IRXR and MRI3-IER/ IXR 3.3 LEDs The LEDs left from the display are partially bi-coloured, the green indicating measuring, and the red fault indication. MRI3 with directional feature have a LED ( green- and red arrow) for the directional display. At pickup/ trip and parameter setting the green LED lights up to indicate the forward direction, the red LED indicates the backward direction. The LED marked with letters RS lights up during setting of the slave address of the device for serial data communication. The LEDs arranged at the characteristic points on the setting curves support the comfortable setting menu selection. In accordance with the display 5 LEDs for phase fault overcurrent relay and 5 LEDs for earth-fault relay indicate the corresponding menu point selected. The LED labelled with the letters LR is alight while the fault recorder is being adjusted. Figure 3.15: Front plate MRI3-IRSR; MRI3-IRE/ IRX and MRI3-ISR TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 13 4 Working principle 4.1 Analog circuits The incoming currents from the main current transformers on the protected object are converted to voltage signals in proportion to the currents via the input transformers and burden. The noise signals caused by inductive and capacitive coupling are supressed by an analog R-C filter circuit. The analog voltage signals are fed to the A/ Dconverter of the microprocessor and transformed to digital signals through Sample- and Hold-circuits. The analog signals are sampled at 50 Hz ( 60 Hz) with a sampling frequency of 800 Hz ( 960 Hz) , namely, a sampling rate of 1.25 ms ( 1.04 ms) for every measuring quantity. ( 16 scans per periode) . Figure 4.1: Block diagram 4.2 Digital circuits The essential part of the MRI3 relay is a powerful microcontroller. All of the operations, from the analog digital conversion to the relay trip decision, are carried out by the microcontroller digitally. The relay program is located in an EPROM ( Electrically-Programmable- Read-Only-Memory) . With this program the CPU of the microcontroller calculates the three phase currents and ground current in order to detect a possible fault situation in the protected object. For the calculation of the current value an efficient digital filter based on the Fourier Transformation ( DFFT - Discrete Fast Fourier Transformation) is applied to suppress high frequency harmonics and DC components caused by fault-induced transients or other system disturbances. The calculated actual current values are compared with the relay settings. If a phase current exceeds the pickup value, an alarm is given and after the set trip delay has elapsed, the corresponding trip relay is activated. The relay setting values for all parameters are stored in a parameter memory ( EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory) , so that the actual relay settings cannot be lost, even if the power supply is interrupted. The microprocessor is supervised by a built-in " watchdog" timer. In case of a failure the watchdog timer resets the microprocessor and gives an alarm signal, via the output relay " self supervision" . 4.3 Directional feature A built-in directional element in MRI3 is available for application to doubly infeeded lines or to ring networks. The measuring principle for determining the direction is based on phase angle measurement and therefore also on coincidence time measurement between current and voltage. Since the necessary phase voltage for determining the direction is frequently not available in the event of a fault, whichever line-to-line voltage follows the faulty phase by 90 is used as the reference voltage for the phase current. The characteristic angle at which the greatest measuring sensitivity is achieved can be set to precede the reference voltage in the range from 15 to 83 . Figure 4.2: Relay characteristic angle The TRIP region of the directional element is determined by rotating the phasor on the maximum sensitivity angle for 90 , so that a reliable direction decision can be achieved in all faulty cases. 14 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 4.3.1 Reversal in direction during the activation phase Reversal of the current direction during the activation phase can lead to hyperfunctions. This mainly applies to installations where parallel connected lines are monitored by current relays with directional feature. For this reason the directional determination for the phase current is shown in a time window; this applies to all SR versions. In case of activation due to a fault, a timer is started and measures the time in the determined direction for max. 1 s. This timer runs backwards at half speed if, during the activation phase, a fault causes reversal of the direction. Only when the timer is at zero again, the MRI3 recognizes the reversal in direction. The switch-over time is max. 2 s. The activation delays tl> and tl> > are not affected by the delayed recognition of direction. 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.5 [ s] Trip delay at direction reversal max. time Recognition of direction reversal Recognition of backward direction is alight Recognition of forward direction is alight Timer runs at half speed actual direction reversal t= 1/ 2 Figure 4.3: Recording scheme of the fault recorder with lead time MRI3 MRI3 MRI3 MRI3 G IK = 0, 3 kA IK = 3, 61 kA IK = 0, 9 kA IK = 3, 31 kA IK = 1, 2 kA l = 3 km l = 0, 5 km l = 3 km No. 2 No. 4 No. 1 No. 3 Figure 4.4 Example: Figures 4.4 and 4.5 illustrate a possible fault situation with a reversal in direction in the fault-free line. The current transformers used have a primary current of 250 A. The switch point for the I> stage is 0.25 kA and for the I> > stage 1 kA. All devices have the same setting and will, if set to Forward , recognize the direction in relation to the forward direction of the line. The critical point here is the MRI3 No. 1. Using delay action in directional recognition, it is possible to prevent shut-down of the fault-free line. The following relay setting applies: I> 1.00 x In CHAR I> DEFT ( inverse) trip delay tI> ( V) 10s Trip delay in forward direction tI> ( R) EXIT ( no trip) Delay in backward direction I> > 4.00 x In tI> > ( V) 0.1 s tI> > ( R) EXIT MRI3 MRI3 MRI3 MRI3 G IK = 1, 2 kA IK = 2, 0 kA IK = 1, 2 kA IK = 0, 8 kA l = 0, 5 km l = 3 km l = 3 km No. 1 No. 3 No. 2 No. 4 Figure 4.5 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 15 If line impedance and internal resistance of the generator is only ohmic: If line impedance and internal resistance of the generator is only inductive: The maximum sensitivity angle corresponds to the R/ L component. The TRIP region of the directional element is determined by rotating the phasor on the maximum sensitivity angle for 90 , so that a reliable direction decision can be achieved in all faulty cases. Figure 4.6: TRIP/ NO-TRIP region for directional element in MRI3. In this case the foreward direction is defined as TRIP region and the backward direction as NO-TRIP region. By means of accurate hardware design and by using an efficient directional algorithm a high sensitivity for the voltage sensing circuit and a high accuracy for phase angle measurement are achieved so that a correct directional decision can be made even by close three-phase faults. As an addition, to avoid maloperations due to disturbances, at least 2 periods ( 40 ms at 50 Hz) are evaluated. For the MRI3-overcurrent relays with directional feature different time delays or time multipliers can be set for forward and backward faults ( ref. to chapter 5.4.3) . If the trip delay for backward faults is set longer than the one for forward faults, the protective relay works as a " backup" -relay for the other lines on the same busbar. This means that the relay can clear a fault in the backward direction with a longer time delay in case of refusal of the relay or the circuit breaker on the faulted line. If the trip delay for backward faults is set out of range ( on the display " EXIT" ) , the relay will not trip in case of backward faults. The assignment of the output relays can be used to select in which direction the failure is to be indicated ( refer also to Chapter 5.7.1) . It is possible to indicate the activation and/ or the tripping for each tripping direction via the output relays. 16 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 4.4 Earth fault protection 4.4.1 Generator stator earth fault protection With the generator neutral point earthed earthed as shown in Figure 4.7 the MRI3 picks up only to phase earth faults between the generator and the location of the current transformers supplying the relay. Earth faults beyond the current transformers, i.e. on the consumer or line side, will not be detected. Figure 4.7: Generator stator earth fault protection 4.4.2 System earth fault protection With the generator neutral point earthed as shown in Figure 4.8, the MRI3 picks up only to earth faults in the power system connected to the generator. It does not pick up to earth faults on the generator terminals or in generator stator. Figure 4.8: System earth fault protection TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 17 4.5 Earth-fault directional feature ( ER/ XR-relay type) A built-in earth-fault directional element is available for applications to power networks with isolated or with arc suppressing coil compensated neutral point. For earth-fault direction detection it is mainly the question to evaluate the power flow direction in zero sequence system. Both the residual voltage and neutral ( residual) current on the protected line are evaluated to ensure a correct direction decision. In isolated or compensated systems, measurement of reactive or active power is decisive for earth-fault detection. It is therefore necessary to set the ER/ XR-relay type to measure according to sin or cos methods, depending on the neutral-point connection method. The residual voltage UE required for determining earth fault direction can be measured in three different ways, depending on the voltage transformer connections. ( refer to Table 4.1) . Total current can be measured by connecting the unit either to a ring core C.T. or to current transformers in a Holmgreen circuit. However, maximum sensitivity is achieved if the MRl1 protective device is connected to a ring core C. T. ( see Figure 3.2) . The pick-up values IE> and IE> > ( active or reactive current component for cos or sin method) for ER-relay types can be adjusted from 0.01 to 0.45 x IN. For relay type MRI3-XR these pick-up values can be adjusted from 0.1 to 4.5% IN. Adjustment possibility Application Voltage transformer connections Measurd voltage at earth fault Correction factor for residual voltage 3pha 3-phase voltage transformer connected to terminals A3, A5, A7, A2 ( MRI3-IRER; MRI3-IER; MRI3-ER/ XR)  3 x UN = 3 x U1N K = 1 / 3 e-n e-n winding connected to terminals A3, A2 ( MRI3-IER; MRI3-ER/ XR) UN =  3 x U1N K = 1 /  3 1: 1 Neutral-point voltage ( = residual voltage) terminals A3, A2 ( MRI3-IER; MRI3-ER/ XR) U1N = UNE K = 1 Table 4.1: Connection of the voltage transformers 18 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Figure 4.9: Phase position between the residual voltage and zero sequence current for faulted and non-faulted lines in case of isolated systems ( sin ) UE - residual voltage IE - zero sequence current IC - capacitive component of zero sequence current IW - resistive component of zero sequence current By calculating the reactive current component ( sin adjustment) and then comparing the phase angle in relation to the residual voltage UE, the ER/ XR-relay type determines whether the line to be protected is earth-faulted. On non-earth-faulted lines, the capacitive component Ic( a) of the total current precedes the residual voltage by an angle of 90 . In case of a faulty line the capacity current IC( b) lags behind the residual voltage at 90 . Figure 4.10: Phase position between the residual voltage and zero sequence current for faulted and non-faulted lines in case of compensated systems ( cos ) UE - residual voltage IE - zero sequence current IL - inductive component of zero sequence current ( caused by Petersen coil) IC - capacitive component of zero sequence current IW - resistive component of zero sequence current In compensated mains the earthfault direction cannot be determined from the reactive current components because the reactive part of the earth current depends upon the compensation level of the mains. The ohmic component of the total current ( calculated by cos adjustment) is used in order to determine the direction. The resistive component in the non-faulted line is in phase with the residual voltage, while the resistive component in the faulted line is opposite in phase with the residual voltage. By means of an efficient digital filter harmonics and fault transients in the fault current are suppressed. Thus, the uneven harmonics which, for instance, are caused an electric arc fault, do not impair the protective function. 19 TB MRI1 09.98 E 4.6 Determining earth short-circuit fault direction The SR-relay type is used in solidly-earthed or resistance- earthed systems for determining earth short-circuit fault direction. The measuring principle for determining the direction is based on phase angle measurement and therefore also on the coincidence-time measurement between earth current and zero sequence voltage. The zero sequence voltage U0 required for determining the earth short-circuit fault direction is generated internally in the secondary circuit of the voltage transformers. With SR/ ISR-relay types the zero sequence voltage U0 can be measured directly at the open delta winding ( e-n) . Connection A3/ A2. 4.6.1 Directly earthed system Most faults in a characteristic angle are predominantly inductive in character. The characteristic angle between current and voltage at which the greatest measuring sensitivity is achieved has therefore been selected to precede zero sequence voltage U0 by 110 . Figure 4.11: Characteristic angle in solidly earthed-systems ( SOLI) 4.6.2 Resistance earthed system Most faults in a resistance-earthed system are predominantly ohmic in character, with a small inductive part. The characteristic angle for these types of system has therefore been set at + 170 in relation to the zero sequence voltage U0 ( see Figure 4.12) . Figure 4.12: Characteristic angle in resistance-earthed systems ( RESI) The pickup range of the directional element is set by turning the current indicator at the characteristic angle through + 90 , to ensure reliable determination of the direction. Figure 4.13: Adjustable characteristical angle of 45 to 309 For all other applications the characteristical angle between 45 and 309 is free selectable 20 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 4.6.3 Connection possibilities of the voltage transformers for SR relay types Application Voltage transformer connections 3-phase voltage transformer connected to terminals A3, A5, A7, A2 ( MRI3-IRSR; MRI3-ISR; MRI3-SR) e-n winding connected to terminals A3, A2 ( MRI3-ISR; MRI3-SR) Neutral-point voltage ( = residual voltage) terminals A3, A2 ( MRI3-ISR; MRI3-SR) 4.7 Demand imposed on the main current transformers The current transformers have to be rated in such a way, that a saturation should not occur within the following operating current ranges: Independent time overcurrent function: K1 = 2 Inverse time overcurrent function: K1 = 20 High-set function: K1 = 1.2 - 1.5 K1 = Current factor related to set value Moreover, the current transformers have to be rated according to the maximum expected short circuit current in the network or in the protected objects. The low power consumption in the current circuit of MRI3, namely , IE> Measuring range overflow max. L1, L2, L3, E Setting values: phase ( I> ; CHAR I> ; tI> ; I> > ; tI> > ) earth ( IE> ; CHAR IE; tIE> ; IE> > ; tIE> > ; UE> ) Current settings Trip delay Characteristics one time for each parameter I > ; CHAR I> ; tI> ; I> > ; tI> > ; LED IE> ; CHAR IE; tIE> ; IE> > ; tIE> > ; UE> Current display as second rated repetition current Iprim ( phase) / Iprim ( earth) SEC ( 0.001-50.0 kA prim) L1, L2, L3, E Parameter switch/ external triggering of the fault recorder SET1, SET2, B_ S2, R_ S2, B_ FR, R_ FR, S2_ FR P2 LED blinking after activation FLSH, NOFL Characteristics DEFT, NINV, VINV, EINV, LINV, RINV CHAR I> Characteristics DEFT, NINV, VINV, EINV, LINV, RINV, RXIDG CHAR IE> Reset setting ( only available at inverse time characteristics) 0s / 60s I> ; CHAR I> ; tI> IE> ; CHAR IE> ; tIE> Relay characteristic angle for pase current directional feature RCA in degree ( ) LED ( green) Warning or Trip at earth fault measuring ( E- and ER/ XR-types) TRIP WARN IE> Measured method of the residual voltage UE 1) 3 PHA ; E-N ; 1: 1 UE> residual voltage setting voltage in volts UE> changeover of isolated ( sin ) or compensated ( cos ) networks ( for ER/ XR-type) SIN COS Change over of solidly/ resistance earthed networks ( SR-type) SOLI RESI Switch failure protection tCBFP Tripping protection switch failure protection CBFP After fault tripping Nominal frequency f= 50 / f= 60 Blocking of function EXIT until max. setting value LED of blocked parameter Slave address of serial interface 1 - 32 RS Baud-Rate 2) 1200-9600 RS Parity-Check 2) even odd no RS Recorded fault data Tripping currents and other fault data one time for each phase L1, L2, L3, E I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > , UE> Save parameter? SAV? Delete failure memory wait Enquiry failure memory FLT1; FLT2..... L1, L2, L3, E I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > , Trigger signal for the fault recorder TEST, P_ UP, A_ PI, TRIP FR Number of fault occurences S = 2, S = 4, S = 8 FR Display of date and time Y = 99, M = 10, D = 1, h = 12, m = 2, s = 12 Change over the blocking function PR_ B, TR_ B und ; I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > oder tI> , tI> > , tIE> , tIE> > 1) refer to 4.4 2) only Modbus 22 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB Function Display shows Pressed push button Corresponding LED Blocking of the protection function BLOC, NO_ B I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > Save parameter! SAV! for about 3 s Software version First part ( e.g. D01-) Sec. part ( e.g. 8.00) one time for each part Manual trip TRI? three times Inquire password PSW? Relay tripped TRIP or after fault tripping Secret password input XXXX System reset SEG for about 3 s Table 5.1: possible indication messages on the display 1) refer to 4.4 2) only Modbus TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 23 5.2 Setting procedure After push button has been pressed, always the next measuring value is indicated. Firstly the operating measuring values are indicated and then the setting parameters. By pressing the push button the setting values can directly be called up and changed. Before parameter setting can be started the relevant password must be entered ( refer to chapter 4.4 of the " MR Digital Multifunctional Relay" description) . 5.3 System parameter 5.3.1 Display of measuring values as primary quantities ( Iprim phase) With this parameter it is possible to show the indication as primary measuring value. For this purpose the parameter must be set to be equal with the rated primary CT current. If the parameter is set to " SEK" , the measuring value is shown as a multiple of the rated secondary CT current. Example: The current transformer used is of 1500/ 5 A. The flowing current is 1380 A. The parameter is set to 1500 A and on the display " 1380 A" are shown. If the parameter is set to " SEK" , the value shown on the display is " 0.92" x In. Note: The pick-up value is set to a multiple of the rated secondary CT current. 5.3.2 Display of earth current as primary quantity ( Iprim earth) The parameter of this function is to be set in the same way as that described under 5.3.1. If the parameter is not set to " SEK" , to relay types MRI3-X and MRI3-XR it applies too, that the measuring value is shown as primary current in ampere. Apart from that the indication refers to % of IN. 5.3.3 Display of residual voltage UE as primary quantity ( Uprim/ Usec) The residual voltage can be shown as primary measuring value. For this parameter the transformation ratio of the VT has to be set accordingly. If the parameter is set to " SEK" , the measuring value is shown as rated secondary voltage. Example: The voltage transformer used is of 10 kV/ 100 V. The transformation ratio is 100 and this value has to be set accordingly. If still the rated secondary voltage should be shown, the parameter is to be set to 1. 5.3.4 Voltage transformer connection for residual voltage measuring ( 3pha/ e-n/ 1: 1) Depending on the connection of the voltage transformer of ER/ XR-relay types three possibilities of the residual voltage measurement can be chosen ( see chapter 4.5) . 5.3.5 Nominal frequency The adapted FFT-algorithm requires the nominal frequency as a parameter for correct digital sampling and filtering of the input currents. By pressing the display shows " f= 50" or " f= 60" . The desired nominal frequency can be adjusted by or and then stored with . 5.3.6 Display of the activation storage ( FLSH/ NOFL) If after an activation the existing current drops again below the pickup value, e.g. I> , without a trip has been initiated, LED I> signals that an activation has occurred by flashing fast. The LED keeps flashing until it is reset again ( push button ) . Flashing can be suppressed when the parameter is set to NOFL. 24 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 5.3.7 Parameter switch/ external triggering of the fault recorder By means of the parameter-change-over switches it is possible to activate two different parameter sets. Switching over of the parameter sets can either be done by means of software or via the external inputs RESET or blocking input. Alternatively, the external inputs can be used for Reset or blocking of the triggering of the fault recorder. Softwareparameter Blocking input used as RESET Input use as SET1 Blocking input RESET Input SET2 Blocking input RESET Input B_ S2 Parameter switch RESET Input R_ S2 Blocking input Parameter switch B_ FR Ext. triggering of the FR Reset input R_ FR Blocking input Ext. Trigger for FR S2_ FR Parameter switch Ext. Trigger for FR With the settings SET1 or SET2 the parameter set is activated by software. Terminals C8/ D8 and D8/ E8 are then available as external reset input or blocking input. With the setting B_ S2 the blocking input ( D8, E8) is used as parameter-set change-over switch. With the setting R_ S2 the reset input ( D8, E8) is used as parameter- set change-over switch. With the setting B_ FR the fault recorder is activated immediately by using the blocking input. On the front plate the LED FR will then light up for the duration of the recording. With the setting R_ FR the fault recorder is activated via the reset input. With the setting S2_ FR parameter set 2 can be activated via the blocking input and/ or the fault recorder via the reset input. The relevant function is then activated by applying the auxiliary voltage to one of the external inputs. Important note: When functioning as parameter change over facility, the external input RESET is not available for resetting. When using the external input BLOCKING the protection functions must be deactivated by software blocking separately ( refer to chapter 5.7.1) . 5.4 Parameter protection 5.4.1 Pickup current for phase overcurrent element ( I> ) The setting value for this parameter that appears on the display is related to the nominal current ( IN) of the relay. This means: pickup current ( Is) = displayed value x nominal current ( IN) e.g. displayed value = 1.25 then, Is = 1.25 x IN. 5.4.2 Time current characteristics for phase overcurrent element ( CHAR I> ) By setting this parameter, one of the following 6 messages appears on the display: DEFT - Definite Time NINV - Normal Inverse VINV - Very Inverse EINV - Extremely Inverse RINV - RI-Inverse LINV - Long Time Inverse Anyone of these four characteristics can be changed by using -push buttons, and can be stored by using -push button. 5.4.3 Trip delay or time factor for phase overcurrent element ( tI> ) Usually, after the characteristic is changed, the time delay or the time multiplier should be changed accordingly. In order to avoid an unsuitable arrangement of relay modes due to carelessness of the operator, the following precautions are taken: If, through a new setting, another relay characteristic other than the old one has been chosen ( e.g. from DEFT to NINV) , but the time delay setting has not been changed despite the warning from the flashing LED, the relay will be set to the most sensitive time setting value of the selected characteristics after five minutes warning of flashing LED tI> . The most sensitive time setting value means the fastest tripping for the selected relay characteristic. If a definite time characteristic has been selected, the display shows the trip delay in seconds. When selecting an inverse time characteristic, the time multiplier appears on the display. Both settings can be charges by push-buttons . When the time delay or the time multiplier is set out of range ( Text " EXIT" appears on the display) , the low set element of the overcurrent relay is blocked. The " WARN" - relay will not be blocked. TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 25 For the MRI3-version with directional feature, the different trip time delays or the time multipliers can be chosen for forward and backward faults. By setting the trip delay, the actual set value for forward faults appears on the display first and the LED under the arrows is alight green. It can be changed with push button and then stored with push button . After that, the actual trip delay ( or time factor) for backward faults appears on the display by pressing push button and the LED under the arrows is alight red. Usually this set value should be set longer than the one for forward faults, so that the relay obtains its selectivity during forward faults. If the time delays are set equally for both forward and backward faults, the relay trips in both cases with the same time delay, namely without directional feature. Note: When selecting dependent tripping characteristics at relays with directional phase current detection, attention must be paid that a clear directional detection will be assured only after expiry of 40 ms. 5.4.4 Reset setting for all tripping characteristics in the phase current path To ensure tripping, even with recurring fault pulses shorter than the set trip delay, the reset mode for inverse time tripping characteristics can be switched over. If the adjustment tRST is set at 60 s, the tripping time is only reset after 60 s faultless condition. This function is not available if tRST is set to 0. With fault current cease the trip delay is reset immediately and started again at recurring fault current. 5.4.5 Current setting for high set element ( I> > ) The current setting value of this parameter appearing on the display is related to the rated current of the relay. This means: I> > = displayed value x IN. When the current setting for high set element is set out of range ( on display appears " EXIT" ) , the high set element of the overcurrent relay is blocked. The high set element can be blocked via terminals E8/ D8 if the corresponding blocking parameter is set to bloc ( refer to chapter 5.7.1) . 5.4.6 Trip delay for high set element ( tI> > ) Independent from the chosen tripping characteristic for I> , the high set element I> > has always a definite-time tripping characteristic. An indication value in seconds appears on the display. The setting procedure for forward- or backward faults, described in chapter 5.4.3, is also valid for the tripping time of the high set element. 5.4.7 Relay characteristic angle RCA The characteristic angle for directional feature in the phase current path can be set by parameter RCA to 15 , 27 , 38 , 49 , 61 , 72 or 83 , leading to the respective reference voltage ( see chapter 4.3) . 5.4.8 Pickup value for residual voltage UE ( ER/ XR-relay type) Regardless of the preset earth current, an earth fault is only identified if the residual voltage exceeds the set reference value. This value is indicated in volt. 5.4.9 Pickup current for earth fault element ( IE> ) ( Similar to chapter 5.4.1) The pickup value of X and XR-relay type relates to % IN. 5.4.10 WARN/ TRIP changeover ( E/ X and ER/ XR-relay type) A detected earth fault can be parameterized as follows. After delay time. a) " warn" only the alarm relay trips b) " trip" the trip relay trips and tripping values are stored. 26 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 5.4.11 Time current characteristics for earth fault element ( CHAR IE) ( not for ER/ XR-relay type) By setting this parameter, one of the following 7 messages appears on the display: DEFT - Definite Time ( independent overcurrent time protection) NINV - Normal inverse ( Type A) VINV - Very inverse ( Type B) EINV - Extremely inverse ( Type C) RINV RI-Inverse LINV Long Time Inverse RXID Special characteristic Anyone of these four characteristics can be chosen by using -pushbuttons, and can be stored by using -pushbutton. 5.4.12 Trip delay or time multiplier for earth fault element ( tIE> > ) ( Similar to chapter 5.4.3) 5.4.13 Reset mode for inverse time tripping in earth current path ( Similar to chapter 5.4.4) 5.4.14 Current setting for high set element of earth fault supervision ( IE> > ) ( Similar to chapter 5.4.5) The pickup value of X and XR-relay type relates to % IN. 5.4.15 Trip delay for high set element of earth fault supervision ( tIE> > ) ( Similar to chapter 5.4.6) 5.4.16 COS/ SIN Measurement ( ER/ XR-relay type) Depending on the neutral earthing connection of the protected system the directional element of the earth fault relay must be preset to cos or sin measurement. By pressing the display shows " COS" resp. " SIN" . The desired measuring principle can be selected by or and must be entered with password. 5.4.17 SOLI/ RESI changeover ( SR-relay type) Depending on the method of neutral-point connection of the system to be protected, the directional element for the earth-current circuit must be set to " SOLI" ( = solidly earthed) or " RESI" = ( resistance earthed) . 5.4.18 Block/ Trip time The block/ trip time serves for detection of a c.b. failure protection by rear interlocking. It is activated by setting the blocking input D8/ E8 and by setting the parameter to TR_ B. After the set block/ trip time has expired, the relay can be tripped if the excitation of a protective function has been applied the delay time of which has expired and the blocking function is still active. If the parameter PR_ B is set, the individual protection stages are blocked ( refer to Chapter 5.7.1) . 5.4.19 Circuit breaker failure protection tCBFP The CB failure protection is based on supervision of phase currents during tripping events. Only after tripping this protective function becomes active. The test criterion is whether all phase currents are dropped to ; IE> ; IE> > are simultaneously alight in case of protective blocking " PR_ B" and LEDs tI> ; tI> > ; tIE> , tIE> > simultaneously emit light in case of trip blocking " TR_ B" . Actuation of the key with a one-time entry of the password will store the set function. After this actuate the key to call up the first blockable protection function. The display will show the text " BLOC" ( the respective function is blocked) or " NO_ B" ( the respective function is not blocked. Actuation of the key will store the set function. By pressing the pushbutton, all further protective function that can be blocked are called one after the other. After selection of the last blocking function renewed pressing of the pushbutton switches to the assignment mode of the output relays. Function Display LED/ Colour Blocking of the protection stage PR_ B I> ; I> > ; IE> ; IE> > Blocking of the trip function TR_ B tI> ; tI> > ; tIE> ; tIE> > I> Overcurrent NO_ B I> red I> > Short circuit BLOC I> > red IE> Earth current 1st element NO_ B IE> red IE> > Earth current 2nd element NO_ B IE> > red tCBFP Circuit breaker failure protection NO_ B CB green Table 5.2: Default settings of both parameter sets Assignment of the output relays: Unit MRI3 has five output relays. The fifth output relay is provided as permanent alarm relay for self supervision is normally on. Output relays 1 - 4 are normally off and can be assigned as alarm or tripping relays to the current functions which can either be done by using the push buttons on the front plate or via serial interface RS485. The assignment of the output relays is similar to the setting of parameters, however, only in the assignment mode. The assignment mode can be reached only via the blocking mode. By pressing push button in blocking mode again, the assignment mode is selected. The relays are assigned as follows: LEDs I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > are two-coloured and light up green when the output relays are assigned as alarm relays and red as tripping relays. In addition, the LED also lights up with each adjustment. Green means forward and red backward direction. Definition: Alarm relays are activated at pickup. Tripping relays are only activated after elapse of the tripping delay. TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 29 After the assignment mode has been activated, first LED I> lights up green. Now one or several of the four output relays can be assigned to current element I> as alarm relays. At the same time the selected alarm relays for frequency element 1 are indicated on the display. Indication " 1_ _ _ " means that output relay 1 is assigned to this current element. When the display shows " _ _ _ _ " , no alarm relay is assigned to this current element. The assignment of output relays 1 - 4 to the current elements can be changed by pressing and push buttons. The selected assignment can be stored by pressing push button and subsequent input of the password. By pressing push button , LED I> lights up red. The output relays can now be assigned to this current element as tripping relays. Relays 1 - 4 are selected in the same way as described before. By repeatedly pressing of the push button and assignment of the relays all elements can be assigned separately to the relays. The assignment mode can be terminated at any time by pressing the push button for some time ( abt. 3 s) . Note: The function of jumper J2 described in general description " MR Digital Multifunctional Relays" has no function. For relays without assignment mode this jumper is used for parameter setting of alarm relays ( activation at pickup or tripping) . A form is attached to this description where the setting requested by the customer can be filled-in. This form is prepared for fax transmission and can be used for your own reference as well as for telephone queries. Relay function Output relays Display- Lighted LED 2 3 4 indication I> ( V) alarm X _ 2 _ _ I> ; green tI> ( V) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tI> ; green I> ( R) alarm X _ 2 _ _ I> ; red tI> ( R) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tI> ; red I> > ( V) alarm X _ _ 3 _ I> > ; green tI> > ( V) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tI> > ; green I> > ( R) alarm X _ _ 3 _ I> > ; red tI> > ( R) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tI> > ; red IE> ( V) alarm X _ _ _ 4 IE> ; green tIE> ( V) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tIE> ; green IE> ( R) alarm X _ _ _ 4 IE> > ; red tIE> ( R) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tIE> > ; red IE> > ( V) alarm X _ _ _ 4 IE> > ; green tIE> > ( V) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tIE> > ; green IE> > ( R) alarm X _ _ _ 4 IE> > ; red tIE> > ( R) tripping X 1 _ _ _ tIE> > ; red tCBFP tripping _ _ _ _ C.B.; red ( V) = forward direction; ( R) = backward direction This way, a tripping relay can be set for each activation and tripping direction. Table 5.4: Example of assignment matrix of the output relays ( default settings) . 30 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 5.8 Setting value calculation 5.8.1 Definite time overcurrent element Low set element ( I> ) The pickup current setting is determined by the load capacity of the protected object and by the smallest fault current within the operating range. The pickup current is usually selected about 20% for power lines, about 50% for transformers and motors above the maximum expected load currents. The delay of the trip signal is selected with consideration to the demand on the selectivity according to system time grading and overload capacity of the protected object. High set element ( I> > ) The high set element is normally set to act for near-by faults. A very good protective reach can be achieved if the impedance of the protected object results in a well-defined fault current. In case of a line-transformer combination the setting values of the high set element can even be set for the fault inside the transformer. The time delay for high set element is always independent to the fault current. 5.8.2 Inverse time overcurrent element Beside the selection of the time current characteristic one set value each for the phase current path and earth current path is adjusted. Low set element I> The pickup current is determined according to the maximum expected load current. For example: Current transformer ratio: 400/ 5 A Maximum expected load current: 300 A Overload coefficient: 1.2 ( assumed) Starting current setting: Is = ( 300/ 400) x 1.2 = 0.9 x IN Time multiplier setting The time multiplier setting for inverse time overcurrent is a scale factor for the selected characteristics. The characteristics for two adjacent relays should have a time interval of about 0.3 - 0.4 s. High set element I> > The high set current setting is set as a multiplier of the nominal current. The time delay tI> > is always independent to the fault current. 5.9 Indication of measuring and fault values 5.9.1 Indication of measuring values The following measuring quantities can be indicated on the display during normal service: Apparent current in phase 1 ( LED L1 green) , active current in Phase 1 ( LED L1 and IP green) , * reactive current in Phase 1 ( LED L1 and IQ green) , * apparent current in phase 2 ( LED L2 green) , active current in Phase 2 ( LED L2 and IP green) , * reactive current in Phase 2 ( LED L2 and IQ green) , * apparent current in phase 3 ( LED L3 green) , active current in Phase 3 ( LED L3 and IP green) , * reactive current in Phase 3 ( LED L3 and IQ green) , * apparent earth current ( LED E green) , active earth current ( LED E and IP green) , * reactive earth current ( LED E and IQ green) , * residual voltage UR ( LED UE) only at ER/ XR-relay type, angle between IE and UE ( only ER/ XR) ( LED E green, LED IE> yellow and LED UE> yellow) . * only in case that the directional option is built in. The indicated current measuring values refer to rated current. ( For MRI3-XR/ X relays the indicated measuring values refer to % of IN) TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 31 5.9.2 Units of the measuring values displayed The measuring values can optionally be shown in the display as a multiple of the " sec" rated value ( xln) or as primary current ( A) . According to this the units of the display change as follows: Phase current: Indication as Range Unit Secondary current Active portion IP Reactive portion IQ 0.00 40.0 .00 40 .00 40. x In x In x In Primary current .000 999. k000 k999 1k00 9k99 10k0 99k0 100k 999k 1M00 2M00 A kA* kA kA kA MA active portion IP .00 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 10k 99k M10 M99 1M0 2M0 A kA* kA kA MA MA Reactive portion IQ .00 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 10k 99k M10 M99 1M0 2M0 A kA* kA kA MA MA * rated current transformer > 2kA Earth current ( sensitive) : Indication as Range Unit Secondary current Active portion IP Reactive portion IQ ( X/ XR types) .000 15.0 .00 15 .00 15 x In x In x In Primary earth current 00m0 99m9 100m 999m .000 999. k000 k999 1k00 9k99 mA* mA* A kA* kA Active portion IP 00m - 99m .10 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 mA* A kA* * kA Reactive portion IQ 00m - 99m .00 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 mA* A kA* * kA * rated current transformer 0.019kA * * rated current transformer 20kA Earth current ( normal) : Indication as Range Unit Secondary current Active portion IP Reactive portion IQ ( E/ SR/ ER types) .000 15.0 .00 15 .00 15. x In x In x In Primary earth current .000 999. k000 k999 1k00 9k99 10k0 99k0 100k 999k 1M00 2M00 A kA* kA kA kA MA Active portion IP .00 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 10k 99k M10 M99 1M0 2M0 A kA* kA kA MA MA Reactive portion IQ .00 999 k00 k99 1k0 9k9 10k 99k M10 M99 1M0 2M0 A kA* kA kA MA MA * rated current transformer > 2kA Earth voltage: Indication as Range Unit sec. Voltage 000V 999V V primary voltage .000 999V 1K00 9K99 10K0 99K9 100K 999K 1M00 3M00 KV KV KV KV MV 5.9.3 Indication of fault data All faults detected by the relay are indicated on the front plate optically. For this purpose, the four LEDs ( L1, L2, L3, E) and the four function LEDs ( I> , I> > , IE> , IE> > und ) are equipped at MRI3. Not only fault messages are transmitted, the display also indicates the tripped protection function. If, for example an overcurrent occurs, first the corresponding LEDs will light up. LED I> lights up at the same time. After tripping the LEDs are lit permanently. 32 TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 5.9.4 Fault memory When the relay is energized or trips, all fault data and times are stored in a non-volatile memory manner. The MRI3 is provided with a fault value recorder for max. five fault occurrences. In the event of additional trippings always the oldest data set is written over. For fault indication not only the trip values are recorded but also the status of LEDs. Fault values are indicated when push buttons or are pressed during normal measuring value indication. Normal measuring values are selected by pressing the button. When then the button is pressed, the latest fault data set is shown. By repeated pressing the button the last but one fault data set is shown etc. For indication of fault data sets abbreviations FLT1, FLT2, FLT3, ... are displayed ( FLT1 means the latest fault data set recorded) . At the same time the parameter set active at the occurrence is shown. By pressing the fault measuring values can be scrolled. By pressing it can be scrolled back to a more recent fault data set. At first FLT8, FLT7, ... are always displayed. When fault recording is indicated ( FLT1 etc) , the LEDs flash in compliance with the stored trip information, i.e. those LEDs which showed a continuous light when the fault occurred are now blinking blinking to indicate that it is not a current fault. LEDs which were blinking blinking during trip conditions, ( element had picked up) just briefly flash. If the relay is still in trip condition and not yet reset ( TRIP is still displayed) , no measuring values can be shown. To delete the trip store, the push button combination and has to be pressed for about 3s. The display shows wait . Recorded fault values: Value displayed Relevant LED Phase currents L1, L2, L3 in I/ In L1, L2, L3 Earth current IE in I/ IEn E C.B. switching time in s 1) C.B. Expired tripping time of I> in % of tI> 2) I> Expired tripping time of IE> in % of tIE> 2) IE> Time stamp Date: Y = 99 M = 04 D = 20 time: h = 11 m = 59 s = 13 Table 5.3 1) C.B. tripping time: Time between energizing of the trip output relay and switching of the C.B. ( current and IE> . 5.10 Reset Unit MRI3 has the following three possibilities to reset thedisplay of the unit as well as the output relay at jumper position J3= ON. Manual Reset Pressing the push button for some time ( about 3 s) Electrical Reset Through applying auxiliary voltage to C8/ D8 Software Reset The software reset has the same effect as the push button ( see also communication protocol of RS485 interface) . The display can only be reset when the pickup is not present anymore ( otherwise " TRIP" remains in display) . During resetting of the display the parameters are not affected. 5.10.1 Erasure of fault storage The fault storage is erased by pressing the key combination and for about 3 s. At the display " Wait" appears. TD_ MRI3_ 11.07_ GB 33 6 Relay testing and commissioning The test instructions following below help to verify the protection relay performance before or during commissioning of the protection system. To avoid a relay damage and to ensure a correct relay operation, be sure that: The auxiliary power supply rating corresponds to the auxiliary voltage on site. The rated current and rated voltage of the relay correspond to the plant data on site. The current transformer circuits and voltage transformer circuits are connected to the relay correctly. All signal circuits and output relay circuits are connected correctly. 6.1 Power-On NOTE! Prior to switch on the auxiliary power supply, be sure that the auxiliary supply voltage corresponds with the rated data on the type plate. Switch on the auxiliary power supply to the relay and check that the message " ISEG" appears on the display and the self supervision alarm relay ( watchdog) is energized ( Contact terminals D7 and E7 closed) . 6.2 Testing the output relays and LEDs NOTE! Prior to commencing this test, interrupt the trip circuit to the circuit breaker if tripping is not desired. By pressing the push button once, the display shows the first part of the software version of the relay ( e.g. D08- ) . By pressing the push button twice, the display shows the second part of the software version of the relay ( e.g. 4.01 ) . The software version should be quoted in all correspondence. Pressing the button once more, the display shows " PSW? " . Please enter the correct password to proceed with the test. The message " TRI? " will follow. Confirm this message by pressing the push button again. All output relays should then be activated and the self supervision alarm relay ( watchdog) be deactivated one after another with a time interval of 3 second and all LEDs with a delay of 0.5 seconds, with the self-supervision relay dropping. Thereafter, reset all output relays back to their normal positions by pressing the push button ( about 3 s) . 6.3 Checking the set
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